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Osama bin Laden
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Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden in 1997.
10 March 1957
2 may 2011 (aged 54)
Stateless from 1994
Saudi Arabia (1979-1991)
Maktab al-khadamat (1982/1986-1990/2000)
War against terrorism
5 wives (including one whom he has divorced)
About 20 children 1
53 half-brothers and half-sisters
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Osama bin Laden (Arabic : أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن, Usāma ben Moḥammed ben ° Awaḍ bin Lāden) Note 1, born 10 March 1957 in Riyad (Saudi Arabia) and death 2 may 2011, killed by a commando American SEAL2,3,4 in Abbottabad (Pakistan)Note 2, is an Islamist stateless-born Saudi, spiritual leader of the jihadist Al-QaïdaNote 4networkNote 3 . It has claimed responsibility and the idea of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States6,7,8 .
The FBI, which placed him from June 1999 on its list of 10 most wanted criminals as a result of the American in the Kenya and Tanzania Embassy bombings, offered 25 million U.S. dollars for any information allowing for its capture, sum brought the Senate to 50 million in 20079,10. TheUnited Nations has established a listcirculated by Interpol in 2006, organizations and the people close to al-Qaida, Osama bin Laden and the Taliban.
If it could be regarded as a hero by some11other Muslims rejected and condemned it. Al-Qaeda itself causes reactions varied among the militarized Islamist movements or not12,13 .
◦1.2 1979-1989 war against the Soviets
◦1.3 1989-1993, the break with Saudi Arabia
◦1.4 1993-February 1998, the troubled years
◦1.5 1998-2001: mass terrorism
◦1.6 2001-2011: tracking and communication
•2 . Al – Qa’idah
◦2.1 members of the family involved in activism
◦3.1 origins claimed 11 – September
◾3.1.1 Palestine and Lebanon
◾3.1.2 first war of Iraq and embargo
◾3.1.3 September 11
◾3.1.4 Bin Laden
◾3.1.5 messages from bin Laden
◦4.1 financial wealth
◦4.2 rumors about the disease or the death of bin Laden
◦4.3 pornographic videos
•5 . see also
◦5.2 popular culture
◦5.3 related articles
◦5.4 external links
•6 notes and references
Born into a rich family Saudi native of Yemen, his father founded the Bin Laden Construction groupcompany construction and holder of many contracts of exclusivity with the Saudi Government. The family fortune is estimated at 5 billion $ US14. According to the assertions of one of his half-brothers, Yeslam Ben Laden, Osama bin Laden would have received from his deceased father, from 1974 to 1994, between 12 and 15 million of dollars15. The proximity with the Royals of Saudi Arabia participates in the fortunes of the company that became one of the first companies in construction in the world, diversifies and becomes the Saudi Binladen Group16, with many ramifications. Among them, the Bin Laden Telecommunications, now since 1999 the Baud Telecom Company (BTC Networks)17 .
Osama bin Laden has 53 half-brothers and half-sisters, his father polygamous married with 22 different women. Itself has 20 children whose Omar married to a British, Jane Felix-Browne, become Salah Karkar bin Laden18 .
The young man made the commercial and technical studies at theKing Abdulaziz University in Jeddah from 1974 to 197819, then joined the family group in the middle of the 1970s.
He studied in this period the main texts of Wahhabism20. This form ofSunni islam, who was born in Saudi Arabia, is considered as particularly harsh and fundamentalist. In addition, it organizes and structure the Muslim law of Saudi society. The Saudi students are therefore influenced by Wahhabism; in this context, it seems natural that Ben Laden it was also21,22 .
1979-1989 war against the Soviets
In 1979, while members of his family are involved in the decision-making of the Grand Mosque of Mecca, he was approached by prince Turki Al Fayçal, then head of intelligence of Saudi Arabia (from 1977 to 2001), Ambassador ofSaudi Arabia in London, and son of former Saudi King Faisal bin Abdelaziz Al Saoud (from 1964 to 1975). At the time, the shah of Iran’s regime has been overthrown by a revolution which is headed by ayatollah Khomeini, while theUSSR invades the Afghanistan a few months later. Islamism began to become an important geopolitical force, replacing popular little Marxism and the pan-Arabism as main ideology in the Middle East. Many moudjahids come fight in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union, supported bySaudi Arabia which sees a possibility of spread of Wahhabism, Pakistan through its Inter-Services Intelligence which would be term at the head of an Islamic international future.
Officially, the CIA began to support the moudjahids in 1980, but according to Robert Gates, the U.S. secret service have begun to help 6 months more early23. According to Zbigniew Brzeziński, president Carter signed the first directive on their clandestine assistance on July 3, 1979, without having intended to lead to an intervention by the Soviets but knowing that this aid made it more likely24. December 24, 1979, the Soviet army invaded the Afghanistan.
The Saudi prince Turki asked Ben Laden to organise the departure of the volunteers for the Afghanistan and their installation at the Pakistani border. Arriving on the spot, the young man discovers activists motivated, but very little organized. Amateurism reigns. Ben Laden had coordinated the arrival of the activists in Peshawar via an organization called « Office services ». It would put in place a real organization and trained military and ideological fighters (camps, mosques, schools, etc.) as well as the supply of weapons. Little by little, he would have supported families. He would be held to widows and the religious education of children. According Noam Chomsky, the moudjahids would have actually been trained, armed and organised by the CIA, french intelligence services, the Egypt, Pakistan, etc. to deliver a holy war to the Soviet25 .
Therefore, the shy young man takes insurance, while its prestige grows. It is said that his meeting with an extremist Indian national to the pseudonym of Mr. Fantôme was partly determinative in the evolution of his personality and his determination. He himself had participated in some26fights. In 1989, his mentor and friend, Palestinian Abdullah Azzam Youcef, is murdered. Osama bin Laden is then found at the head of the organization. It is the basis ofAl-Qaïda, which is soon transformed into logistics of international jihadism , some veterans of Afghanistan starting then fight on other fronts ( Chechnya, Yugoslavia, etc.) During this decade, Ben Laden shall regularly report to the prince Turki, making numerous trips in Saudi Arabia.
Ben Laden Organization remains nevertheless, at the time, as one of the many factions in Afghanistan, country more obedient than ideological tribal logics. While in many regions of Afghanistan, a version moderate islam is respected, many Mujahedin are wary of the coming of foreigners conveying Salafism. The Commander Massoud, in particular, refuses any alliance with Ben Laden because he believed that it supports the Taliban, against whom he fights, and that he represents a danger to the community international27,28. Osama bin Laden is so close of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a local fundamentalist leader and « main beneficiary, according to Noam Chomsky, for 3.3 billion dollars in the United States (official) aid to the Afghan rebels (a roughly equivalent amount, said to be supplied bySaudi Arabia) »29. Hekmatyar is also, at the time, supported by Pakistan which would see at the head of the country after the departure of the Soviets.
In February 1989 the Soviets announced their withdrawal from Afghanistan. The jihadists want to continue the fight until the seizure of power in Kabul. However, the United States who have reached their goal, and Saudi Arabia, stop funding and massive logistical support in 1990.
1989-1993, the break with Saudi Arabia
Osama bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia, it is regarded as a hero. He organized lectures in mosques, in schools, at the University on its « Jihad » against theSoviet army.
During the (1990-1991) Gulf war, Osama bin Laden offers the King Fahd to use his militia to defend the country against a possible invasion of Iraq30troops. The latter refuses and prefers to open its territory to theUnited States Army, lending the flank to the charge that he would have authorized the » infidels » to « defile the sacred ground » of Saudi Arabia. Ben Laden is thus increasingly critical towards the Royal family, and goes as far as accusing the princes of corruption. The Saudi Interior Ministry seized his passport during the winter of 1990-199131 .
Oussama Ben Laden left Saudi Arabia in May 199132 .
He chooses to ally with opponents of the wahibi Government installed in Iran and Syria33 .
Forbidden to stay in Saudi Arabia, he then lives in Khartoum, Sudan, from 1992 to 199619. He is greeted by Hassan al-Turabi, who heads the Sudanese national Islamic Front (NIF). He settled in the country, invests and made some deals (roads, agricultural exports, land acquisitions, banking activities in accordance with the principles of the Islamic Bank).
On several occasions in 1992-1993, members of his family will meet in Sudan to ask him to abandon his opposition to the Royal family and return to Saudi Arabia, without effect. In June 1993, his family stops his participation in family companies and its shares sold for a value of $ 9.9 million, amount which is placed on an account blocked, which could be used for its eventual return to the country or given to his heirs after his death. In February 1994, his family repudiated Osama in a34release. In early April 1994, Saudi Arabia deprived of her nationality5,35 .
It remains however in discrete relationships with some members of the Saudi regime (the Royal family is indeed little United). These secret relationships with some members of the Saudi royal family and or security forces, are illustrated by the attack of November 8, 2003, Riyad. Indeed, there is ‘a movement growing internal strife between the friends and the enemies of Ben Laden within the Royal House’36 .
1993 February 1998, the troubled years
Between 1992 and 1995, Ben Laden finance and armed the Bosnian Mujahideen, including via the Austrian ‘humanitarian’ organization Third World Relief Agency (TWRA). He was then met with Alija Izetbegović and received a Bosnian passport in 199337, that denies the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina38 .
Ben Laden follows and funded the Mujahideen the most radical Islamists returned after the Afghanistan war in their country of origin (they are are nicknamed ‘Afghans’). It also funds training camps. As early as December 1992 a group funded by Ben Laden is responsible for an attack in Yemen against the U.S. soldiers on the road for operation Restore Hope in Somalia.
The same year, an attack affects the World Trade Centerand caused 6 deaths. A group linked to Osama bin Laden is suspected.
Osama bin Laden benefits from the policy of a part of the Clintonadministration, supported by the oil lobby. It has several objectives: support for stable regimes in Central Asia in order to allow the delivery of oil and gas, the fight against the Russian in the region influence and a policy resolutely committed againstIran Shiite39. This last goal through support forIslamist Sunni Pakistan40 and41 Saudi Arabiaincluding this. This support came to fruition during a statement by Bill Clinton, on 15 March 1995. He claims that « the traditional values of islam are in harmony with the ideals the best of the West »41. This is why Osama bin Laden is not only perceived as a threat. This strategy is however reversed in the last years of the mandate of Bill Clinton.
As a result of the campaign of attacks by the armed Islamic Group in France in 1995, Belgian police discovered documents of this group dedicated to Ben Laden42 .
May 26, 1995, Al-Qaeda is suspected of having participated in an assassination attempt against the Egyptian president Mohammed Hosni Mubarak43 .
In February 1998, Osama bin Laden appeals to attack American interests anywhere in the world. It therefore becomes an official enemy of the United States, receiving his expulsion from Sudan. He then fled to Afghanistan, passed under control of the Taliban since 1996.
1998-2001: mass terrorism
Satellite image of Zhawar Kili training camp referred by the U.S. strikes of 1998
The first international arrest warrant issued on his person date of mid-April 1998 ; it emanates fromInterpol at the request of the Government of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, following the assassination in 1994 on Libyan soil of a couple of German citizens, Becker, secret agents of thefederal Office for protection of the constitution44 (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz/BfV). Since then,Spain45 and the United States have also requested red notices on him to46 Interpol.
The United States hold it responsible for the directed bomb attacks against the US embassies in Nairobi in Kenya (213 dead including eight Americans) and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania (11 dead, all Tanzanians) on 7 August 1998. Following these, the U.S. Government updates its head price for 5 million in October 1998. Each assault, Ben Laden is delighted by the attacks, but does not claim.
Tangible evidence of the strong presence of theISI in Afghanistan was given by the Pakistani official protest at bombing American retaliation by cruise missiles against the camps led by Ben Laden on 12 August 1998 which killed five officers from this service47 .
In 1999, twoChinese army colonels extensively cite it in their book The war out of range where it is referred as a serious danger to future48. It is placed in June of the same year on the list of ten most wanted FBI fugitives49 .
In August 2001, the Moroccan Islamic combatant group made allegiance to Osama bin Laden, in particular via present people in Afghanistan, and who will eventually live in Belgium50 .
In August 2001, prince Turki was sacked by the Saudi regime.
Backed by Pakistan, the United States are negotiating with the Taliban, who are procrastinating. The attacks of 11 September 2001 brutally quit this negotiation.
2001-2011: tracking and communication
Osama bin Laden is seen as the primary responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. He himself acknowledged involvement in the attacks on the World Trade Center of 11 September 2001, by confessing to be the instigator ( » I say to you, Allah knows that he not came us to mind to hit the towers. (« But after that it became unbearable to see the oppression and tyranny of the American-Israeli coalition against our people of Palestine and the Lebanon, I then got this idea « ) and expressed appreciation for their holding.
As a result of September 11, 2001 attacks, and after the Government of theIslamic Emirate of Afghanistan refused to deliver Ben Laden, the president of the United States George w. Bush Gets the establishment of an international Afghanistan intervention with the declared goal of destroying Al-Qaïda.
Diplomatic to challenge him are measures since the end of the 1990s, including the establishment of a Committee on sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban (established pursuant to resolution 1267 in 1999, called also 1267 Committee)51, the United Nations Security Council resolutions 1377 of 12 November 200152 and 1390 of January 16, 200253 related to the position of theUnion European54 .
December 13, 2001, the U.S. Government has $ 25 million offer for information leading directly to his capture, and an additional two million dollars is offered jointly by the Air Line Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association55. From this moment, the United States officially want Ben Laden « dead or alive ».
Despite research that continued until January 2002, Ben Laden has not been found during the battle of Tora Bora. Afghan war leaders, like Zaman Ghamsharik, are suspected of leaving it running away56. After his escape from Tora Bora, Ben Laden manages to escape his pursuers for a decade.
Osama bin Laden watches television in his complex ofAbbottabad in Pakistan.
According to interviews with his wife Amal by the Pakistani authorities after his death, after fleeing Tora Bora, he would have gone to Kohat near Peshawar, where he met Khalid Sheikh Mohammed at least once. Ben Laden is would be regularly moved in Waziristan in 2003, then in Swat Valley for a few months. In 2004 it will be installed in a house in Haripur before finally settling in a villa to the Abottabad in 2005. He would have received a transplant of kidney in 2002, unless we know where this operation would have occurred (in Karachi or outside Pakistan). In 2011, his first wife, Khairiah Saber, would have joined it to the Abottabad after being released by the Iranian authorities that it had kept under house arrest for a decade. Ben Laden maintained contact with leaders of the Lashkar-e-Toiba and Taliban afghans57 .
According to Senator American Dianne Feinstein, Chair of the Committee on information to the Senate, Ben Laden had left these mountains since 2005 or 2006 to reach a fortified complex in Abbottabad58 (town located 50 km North of the capital Islamabad) for several reasons: suffering from a serious intestinal amoebic infection, it could be more easily treated in the city; to the effectiveness of U.S. drones, Ayman al-Zawahiri,No. 2 ofAl-Qaïda, believed that its security was more assured in these areas; He could meet easily with new Al-Qaida officials, including Ilyas Kashmiri (en), his protégé and which he wanted to spearhead its59 movement.
The Qatari Al Jazeera published on 12 November 2002 a sound message recognized by the authorities of the United States as from Osama bin Laden. It warns and threatens several Western countries of new attacks if they continue to support the gang of butchers of the White House . ».
On 31 may 2003, a signed letter of Osama bin Laden is found on the body of a militant killed in a clash with Saudi police and linked to the attacks of Riyad. Letter, old of approximately six months, congratulated the Group of activist60 .
On 30 October 2004, a video broadcast by Al-Jazeera Arabic channel four days before the presidential elections in the United States would tend to show that Osama bin Laden is still alive at the time of the registration despite persistent rumours of death in the mountains in the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. The latter refers back to back two candidates and Announces future attacks. He says that contrary to the argument of American leaders, its purpose is not to fight against freedom, in which case he would be attacked in Northern States. It considers that the attacks on the World Trade Center are a retaliatory measure against the ‘killings’ organized by the US military.
On 27 December 2004, the Al Jazeera television channel aired a recording audio, attributed to Osama bin Laden, designating the Jordanian Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi as his Deputy in Iraq and calling for a boycott of the elections on 30 January 2005 .
On 19 January 2006, after a year of silence, Al-Jazeera broadcast a new audio recording where Osama bin Laden announces the preparation of new terrorist operations and offers a « truce » in Exchange for a withdrawal of American troops in Iraq and Afghanistan: « we have no objection to offering you a truce (hudna) of long duration in fair conditions that we will keep ».because we are a nation that God forbid treachery and falsehood « . A truce immediately denied by the White House. The absence of images fuelling further speculation that Osama bin Laden would be sick or injured and perhaps even death.
In another audio recording broadcast on 23 April, Osama bin Laden discusses the situation in Sudan for the first time by calling his supporters « to prepare with all what necessary to a war of long duration against robbers in Western Sudan. » the Western Sudan for Darfur61 .
Two new audio recordings attributed to Osama bin Laden are broadcast on 23 May and on 30 June : the first exonerate Zacarias Moussaoui after his conviction to life imprisonment in the context of the September 11, 2001 attacks and the second pays tribute to Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi , killed in a U.S. raid in Baqouba on 7 June 2006 .
Bin Laden in 2010.
On 7 September 2007, the Al Jazeera broadcasts, a few days before the sixth anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks, excerpts from a video of Osama bin Laden, the first since nearly three years62. The head of Al-Qaida, whose voice has been officially identified by US intelligence services, is aimed at the United States and discusses the current situation in Iraq63. Ben Laden mentions the names of french president Nicolas Sarkozy, elected in May 2007, as well as British Prime Minister Gordon Brown , who succeeded Tony Blair in June of the same year.
On 30 November 2009, the Committee of business foreign of Senate of United States makes public a report revealing that Oussama Ben Laden have been captured or killed while he was staying in the mountainous region of Tora Bora around 16 December 200164 if the army American had massively mobilised several thousands of men in the region instead of opt for one approach commando supported by the militiamen afghans and keystrokes air65 .
On 6 December 2009, Secretary U.S. Defense Robert Gates said that US military authorities did not have, for years, the slightest indication on the location of Ben Laden66 .
On 24 January 2010, in a new audio recording, Ben Laden claims responsibility for the attempted bombing of the 25 December 2009 on an Northwest Airlines connecting Amsterdam to Detroitflight, and threatens new attacks United States .
Main article: death of Osama bin Laden.
Celebration in Times Square following the announcement of the death of Osama bin Laden.
The morning of 2 may 2011, around 1:30 hour local, Osama bin Laden was killed in the city ofAbbottabad in Pakistan67 in a costly residence fortified (compound), built in 200568 and monitored by the intelligence services US since August 201069, about 50 kilometres fromIslamabad and less than 140 kilometres from the tribal areasduring a military operation on the ground ordered by US president Barack Obama and led by a score of SEAL (theUS Navycommandos). At least four other people, members of his family (one of his sons and collaborators, – two messengers), were reportedly killed in the clash. His body was recovered by U.S. special forces who would have brought him back to Afghanistan, prior toimmerse his remains in high seas70. The president of the United States said the death of the terrorist in a speech the same evening, at 5:36 UT, declaring that « justice is done ». He also hailed the cooperation of the Pakistani authorities in this operation69 .
The announcement has caused several spontaneous patriotic demonstrations across the country, including the heart of New York, near Ground Zero and Times Square, and downtown Washington, D.C., on Lafayette Square, near the White House. Former U.S. president George w. Bush, came out of the silence he observed since his departure from the Presidency to pay tribute to a « great victory for the United States’71 .
Three days before the elimination of Ben Laden, president Obama announced a reshuffle of his intelligence and defence team, including causing the departure of Robert Gates, Secretary of defence of United States appointed by George w. Bush, and his replacement by Leon Panetta, Director of the CIA since January 5, 2009, date of the accession of Barack Obama to the Presidency of the United States72,73 .
Leon Panetta admitted that torture by water (waterboarding) authorized by George W. Bush and applied for example to Khalid Sheikh Mohammed183 times during the month of March 2003, allowed to retrieve information which led to the cache of Ben Laden74, in particular the name ofAbu Ahmed al-Kuwaiti, identified as the Messenger of Ben Laden75 .
The High Commissioner of the United Nations for human rights, Navi Pillay says that anti-terrorism operations should abide by international law but considers that Ben Laden had assumed full responsibility for his actions, including massacres of civilians that could be described as crime against humanity76 .
May 5, 2011, president Obama issued a solemn tribute to the victims of the September 11 attacksat Ground Zero . He had invited his predecessor George w. Bush to join him, but the latter declined the invitation77 .
Al-Qaïda confirmed Friday, may 6, 2011, the death of Osama bin Laden in a communiqué published on sites Islamists78. Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan promised on may 2 to avenge the death of the leader of Al-Qaida79. The movement claimed theattack of May 13, 2011 at Shabqadar Northwest of Pakistan that kills 98 people, especially young recruits of a paramilitary group of police, injured more than 140 people. In addition, it clarifies that the attack is a revenge for the death of ben Laden80,81 .
Following his death, the federal justice of the United States formally ended, on June 17, 2011, prosecution committed against him82 .
The choice of targets particularly spectacular in its terrorist operations[which?], shows both a sense of the tactical preparation of the use of the media.
Regarding the conceptualization of terrorism and the » ideological » ofAl-Qaedapane, the « brain » is Ayman al-Zawahiri83. Ben Laden would be contented to finance the September 11, 2001 attacks, and the operation would have been proposed and orchestrated by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, according to confessions by the latter and the conclusions of final report of the national commission on the terrorist attacks against the United States84. A video broadcast by Al Jazeera on 7 September 2006 would however show Ben Laden and his lieutenants, including Mohammed Atef (died in Afghanistan in November 2001), preparing the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Cassettes recorded and distributed, often by the Al Jazeera exclusively pursue several goals:
•maintain the psychosis of terrorism in Western democracies, sometimes in meddling in the political game as at the 2004 U.S. elections or Spanish election of the same year.
•recall its existence to public opinion in Muslim countries in addressing themes that affect them, to facilitate the recruitment of Al-Qaeda.
•refresh the objectives of Jihad ofAl Qaeda.
Members of the family involved in activism
Saad bin Laden, third son of Ben Laden, born in 1979, would have leftIran for the tribal areas of Pakistan join his father and reportedly killed during of an attack by a drone in the summer 200985. Several other members of his family remain in 2009 in Iran. A list of eighty-five suspects linked to al-Qaeda was published by Interpol on February 10, 2009, at the request of Saudi Arabia that consider a major threat to the country. There are among them a brother-in-law of Ben Laden and eleven former detainees in the prison of Guantanamo86,87 .
In March 2014, while he testifies in the trial which it is instituted in New York under charges of conspiracy to kill Americans, conspiracy to provide support to terrorists and material support to terrorists, Souleymane Abu Ghaith, son-in-law of bin Laden and former spokesman of al-Qaida, says that on the evening of September 11, 2001 his father-in-law entrusted him with organizing attacks88,89 .
Ben Laden condemns the evolution of the Islamic civilization since the demise of the Caliphate (the last Caliph was the ottoman sultan until 1924)90. This objective through a reversal of the Arab Governments ‘ lay ‘ and ‘ ungodly ‘ protected by the United States as the » Western Crusaders . In his91 by journalist Robert Fisk in 1996interview, he stated:
« The people now includes the speeches of the ulema in mosques, according to which our country became a colony of theAmerican empire. It acts with determination to oust the Americans ofSaudi Arabia. […] The solution to this crisis is the withdrawal of U.S. troops. Their military presence is an insult to the Saudi people. »
For Osama bin Laden, the military bases in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East regarded as territories sacred (with places Holy Medina and Mecca) represent a sacrilegious because these American bases were to be temporary, the time to win the war against Saddam Hussein.
Origins claimed September 11
Main article: Motivations of the attacks of September 11, 2001.
Palestine and Lebanon
Main article: War of Lebanon.
Osama bin Laden uses in its propaganda the reference to Israel ‘s South Lebanon occupation duringoperation peace for Galilee in 1982. He says have been affected by the Israeli bombing of the Palestinian refugees during the Lebanon war.
« I tell you, Allah knows that he not came us to mind to hit the towers. But after that it became unbearable to see the oppression and tyranny of the American-Israeli coalition against our people in Palestine and Lebanon, I then got this idea. The events that affected me directly began in 1982, when America allowed the Israelis to invade the Lebanon and that the sixth American air division has helped them. This bombing began has made many deaths and injuries, and as well as people terrorized refugees. I cannot forget these scenes, blood, shredded members, women and children lying everywhere. Destroyed houses and their occupants, piles of rubble on their bodies, bombs that rained on our homes without mercy. »
« This situation was like a crocodile meeting a helpless child. Can the crocodile understand a conversation that would not include a weapon? And the world has seen, and heard, but he did not respond. »
Osama bin Laden operates a sense of resentment among a large part of the Muslims of Palestine and the Middle East against what is perceived as an Israeli aggression backed by the United States. He himself describes the Israeli operations of ‘tyranny’ and ‘oppression’92 .
First war of Iraq and embargo
Detailed articles: (1990-1991) Gulf war and Iraq war.
Ben Laden introduced theeconomic embargo againstIraq and the regular bombing of that country between the two wars, as evidence that the United States, through their president George h. w. Bush, were ‘murderers of children’93 .
The Iraq embargo would have done 500 000 dead Iraqi children, according to theUnited Nations (UN)94 .
This « assault » is initially for Osama bin Laden a religious issue: military presence in Saudi Arabia (desecration of a holy land) and support for Israel which occupies Jerusalem (holy place). The rhetoric on the suffering of the Palestinians or Iraqis is used to raise awareness of Muslims in his fight but is not at the centre of the concerns ofAl-Qaeda.
« With these images in mind, the events of 11 September came as a response to these terrible errors. How could a man be blamed for defending his home? Is defend and punish the aggressor terrorism? »
These terrorist actions, which were made by the victims, are condemned by most Muslims.
In addition, the presence indirect American, embodied by the support for the State of Israel, justifies for Osama bin Laden, attacks everywhere in the world of American interests. Like « think globally, act locally » Raymond Williams, Osama bin Laden applies the reverse strategy thinking locally and acting globally95 .
Introduction of bin Laden speech, November 2004, video aired on Al Jazeera :
« Before, I tell you that security is an essential pillar of human life, and that free men do not compromise their safety, unlike the falsification of George Bush, who said that we hate freedom. If that were the case, which he explains why we do not, for example, knock the Sweden? »
« No, we fight because we are free men, who cannot sleep under oppression. We want to restore the freedom of our nation. »
Osama bin Laden believes that George Bush hides the reasons for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and this, in order to deceive the American people.
« Even if we are in the fourth year after the events of September 11, Bush continues the misinformation, and hide the real causes [September 11 events] […] It was the message that I tried to make you understand facts and actions, repeatedly, and, long before September 11. And you can read all this, if you want, in my interview with Scott, in Time Magazine, in 1996, or with Peter Arnett, CNN, in 1997, or at my meeting with John Weiner, in 1998. […] And you can read my interview with Abdul Bari Atwan, and yet my interviews with Robert Fisk. »
He considers the new war inIraq from 2003, as an attempt of George w. Bush to « remove an old agent of Saddam Hussein, and replace it with a new puppet, allowing the looting of oil from Iraq and other outrages. »
Osama bin Laden has no link proven with Saddam Hussein although it would have offered himasylum in 199996. On the contrary, it would appear that Ben Laden considered Saddam Hussein a » Socialist » infidel97 .
Messages from bin Laden
Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, Osama bin Laden is expressed mainly through videos and audio recordings. Some of the messages however could not be authenticated98 .
Four of these video recordings have been broadcast:
•the first video is dated 9 November 2001 and is broadcast on 13 December 2001 : Ben Laden ensures that the destruction of September 11 exceeded his expectations.
•the second is broadcast on September 10, 2003: the Al-Qaeda leader appears walking with Ayman Al-Zawahiri.
•the third is broadcast on October 29, 2004: a few days before the U.S. presidential, Al Jazeera broadcast a tape in which Ben Laden threatens new attacks United States.
•the latest is broadcast on September 7, 2007 after having discovered by the SITE Institute prior to its release by Al-Qaeda: announces the American defeat in Iraq and criticism of all political forces: « to explain the failure of Democrats to end the war, I say: these are the same reasons that prevented president Kennedy to stop the Viet Nam war. Those who truly possess the power are those who have the most important capital. And since the democratic system allows large companies to support candidates for the Presidency, it may be surprising – and it is not – surprising failure of the Democrats to stop the war (…) You sacrifice your large business99soldiers. « To put an end to the war, it encourages Americans to Islamise is: »the only way to achieve peace is to convert to islam100 . Serious doubts expressed as to the origin of this record, many observers have noticed that the image of Ben Laden is frozen during most of the video. There is also a Ben Laden to different physical appearance.
Then 3 audio recordings:
•Wednesday 19 March 2008, the press is the echo of a sound message of threats accompanied by an animation video broadcast on an As-Sahab internet site nearAl-Qaïda and on which you can see a spear piercing the map ofEurope where the blood spreads. According to the press, Ben Laden would consider the case of the cartoons of Muhammad by the newspaper Jyllands-Posten as underminingislam and he would predict veiled words of a large-scale attacks by adopting words enigmatic such as ‘don’t listen to not our words but watch our actions’ or « response will be what you see and not what you will hear »101 .
•24 January 2010, it broadcast an audio message on radio Al Jazeera threatening United States of new attacks if they continue to support the State ofIsrael and do not provide security in Palestine.
•On 27 October 2010, it records a message in France in which he challenged the law prohibiting the wearing of the full veil and also asked French troops to withdraw fromAfghanistan. He explained that these two reasons justify the removal of 5 french in Niger. He also indicated that attacks were prepared.
•7 may 2011, after the death of bin Laden in its Pakistani refuge, U.S. authorities broadcast five cassettes102 of bin Laden (whose one where, very aged, he watches himself on-screen)103. To avoid exploitation of the messages contained in the tapes, they are broadcast without sound.
The figure of $ 300 million as an estimate of the financial wealth of Ben Laden was often repeated. It had been cited in 1996 by a charge of research from the State Department, which first divided the global assets of Group bin Laden, that he valued at $ 5 billion, by the number of the sons of the family, that he estimated twenty. It thus resulted in 250 million $, rounded then to 300 million104. This figure was denied by the publication of the final report of the national commission on the terrorist attacks against the United Statesin April 2004. Several researchers in the Middle East (Ibrahim Warde, adjunct professor atTufts University, or Alain Gresh) consider this estimate visionary10419 .
According to Seymour Hersh, journalist for The New Yorker and who had already made burst the scandal of Abu Ghraib prison, in a conference at Cairo issued the opinion that Dick Cheney, Elliott Abrams and Saudi prince Bandar bin Saud continued to fund members of the Al-Qaida network, in covert operations in Lebanon and Iran (two Shiite -majority countries(, Sunni Islam is not recognized as a religious minority in Iran), to destabilize the two countries pushing to sectarian strife. They would also push the Iran in a move that would give a reason in his attack by the United States105 .
Rumors about the disease or the death of Ben Laden
Ben Laden would have suffered fromchronic renal failure requiring treatment and would have been under dialysis. According to other sources, he was not on dialysis and suffered no kidney106 problems.
Observers have repeatedly considered possible the death of the head of Al-Qaida. In January 2002, the president of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf believed that the Islamist may have died of kidney failure. In July 2002, the head of the FBI Dale Watson (en) thought he was ‘probably more of this world’. In December 2002, is the head of Pakistan’s diplomacy, Khurshid Kasuri, who says that Ben Laden had died as a result of US military operations.
On 23 September 2006, the french newspaper L’Est républicain revealed the existence of a classified note confidential defence of the DGSE , which indicated that the Saudi secret services were convinced that Oussama Ben Laden had died on 23 August 2006 from an attack of typhoid fever. President Jacques Chirac, surprised at the disclosure of the information, said that « this information is not confirmed in any way whatsoever […]» 107 .
2 November 2007, Benazir Bhutto, candidate for the Presidency of Pakistan, said in an interview with David Frost on the airwaves ofAl Jazeera English, the name of a man « who killed Osama bin Laden ‘108. This assertion at the simple turn of a phrase is generally regarded as a slip of the tongue and that she probably meant «Daniel Pearl»109 .
On 21 December 2008, in an interview to the American TV Fox News Channel, Dick Cheney, outgoing US Vice President considered not be sure that Osama bin Laden is still alive.
14 may 2011, US officials revealed that an important batch of pornographic videos was discovered in the Pakistani cache of Osama bin Laden by U.S. special forces during the raid on may 2110 .
This trivial discovery illustrates the contradictions of an Osama ben Laden, great amateur of Coca-Cola111, which had yet written in 2002 a letter in which he attacked certain aspects of the culture American, including what he called the exploitation of women « as consumer products or advertising tools » (« you have washed the brains of your daughters so that they believe free themselves by wearing bare clothingWhile in reality, they have released that your sexual desire»112 ).
On other Wikimedia projects:
•Osama bin Laden , on Wikimedia Commons
•Osama bin Laden, on Wikinews
•Authority records : virtual international authority file • University documentation system • Library of Congress • Gemeinsame Normdatei • national diet library • WorldCat
•Jean Sasson, Najwa bin Laden, Omar Ben Laden, Osama bin Laden, family – his wife and son portrait tell, Denoël, April 2010, 420 pages, (ISBN 978-2-207-10113-1)
•Jürgen Elsässer, how the Jihad arrived in Europe, 2006, (ISBN 978-2-88892-004-5)
•Roland Jacquard and Attame Tazaghart, Bin Laden, the destruction programmed by the West, 2004, (ISBN 978-2-86477-204-0)
•Jonathan Randal, Osama, the making of a terrorist, 2004, (ISBN 978-2-226-15570-2)
•Carmen bin Laden, Veil torn, 2003, (ISBN 978-2-7499-0044-5)
•Ian Hamel, the Enigma Osama bin Laden, Payot, 2008113,114
•Richard Labévière, Osama bin Laden or the murder of the father : United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan. Lausanne, Éditions Favre, 2002, 141 p. (ISBN 978-282890711-2)
•Michel Tatu, bin Laden and thee century XXI, 2002,(ISBN 978-2-9517925-1-7)
•Jean-Charles Brisard and Guillaume Dasquié, Ben Laden – the forbidden truth, Denoël, 2001 and 2002 (ISBN 978-2-207-25320-5) and (ISBN 978-2-207-25356-4); then Gallimard, 2002, (ISBN 978-2-07-042377-4)
•Roland Jacquard and Attame Tazaghart, on behalf of Osama bin Laden, Jean Picollec, 2001, (ISBN 978-2-86477-183-8); then in pockets, (ISBN 978-2-253-15502-7)
•Ahmed Rashid, The shadow of Taliban, otherwise, 2001
•Antoine Basbous, the Islamism – an abortive revolution?, Hachette literature, 2000, (ISBN 978-2-01-235272-8)
•Mohamed Sifaoui, in the footsteps of Ben Laden: the game trouble Americans, Le Cherche midi, April 2004, (ISBN 978-2-7491-0266-5)
•Captain Alan H. and staff sergeant Adam r., on the trail of Al-Qaida and evidence of the Special Forces, Alban éditions, 226 pages, (ISBN 978-2-911751-17-2)
•Mohamed Sifaoui, satirical cartoonist Philippe Bercovici, Bin Laden unveiled, comic biography, (ISBN 2356480838), September 10, 2009115
•Zero Dark Thirty is a film directed by Kathryn Bigelow in 2012 which tells stalking and the death of Osama bin Laden, from torture by water (waterboarding) authorized by George W. Bush and applied in particular to Khalid Sheikh Mohammed183 times during the month of March 2003, having allowed to retrieve information which led to the cache of Ben Ladenwhat Leon Panetta admitted74, in particular the name ofAbu Ahmed al-Kuwaiti75 .
•Bin Laden family
•Death of Osama bin Laden
•(en) Profile: Osama bin Laden
•(en) Biography of Osama bin Laden
•(en) Statements and interviews with bin Laden between 1995 and 1998
•(en) Article on the assassination attempts of the Pope and deletions of airliners in the 1990s
•(en) The United States on bin Laden authorities wanted
•(en) [PDF] Compilation of speeches, interviews and messages of Osama bin Laden issued between 1994 and 2004.
•(en) Transcript of the February 2003 band
•(en) Video of 2004 transcript
•(en) Transcript of the video of 2007
Notes and references
1.↑ In the majority of other languages, its name is transcribed bin Laden, or occasionally ibn Laden.
2.↑ Based on the coordinated universal time (UTC) and without context of place, death occurred the may 2011 1er at about 20:30 UTC.
3.↑ Was stripped of his Saudi nationality in April 19945.
4.↑ It is wrongly regarded as its founder, although Abdullah Azzam.
1.↑ (en) Scott Shane, « « . Bin Laden as Patriarch « » , The New York Times May 14, 2011 (read online)
2.↑ « Death of bin Laden: the details of operation commando ‘, France Info, 1St may, 2011.
3.↑ « In an intelligence driven operation, Osama Bin Ladin was killed in the surroundings of Abbottabad in the early hours of this morning. . » , May 2, 2011 (consulted the may 2, 2011 ))
4.↑ Adam Brookes, « US forces kill Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan» , BBC News , 2 May 2011
5.↑ a and b « Financier of Islamic networks », in The world of intelligence, no 239, 21 April 1994 
6.↑ Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11, CBC News Network, October 19, 2004, read online
7.↑ Étienne Leenhardt, » the videotape that accuses bin Laden ‘, Journal of 20 hours of France 2, 13 December 2001, INA.
8.↑ The video where bin Laden brags about attacks on Liberation.fr
9.↑ (en) Leparisien.fr
10.↑ « FBI ten most wanted fugitive »
11.↑ « Bin Laden, many Tunisians secret hero’, Le Monde, 10 November 2001 ;
« Bin Laden and the martyrs of Jihad », La Rivista del manifesto, no 24, January 2002: « all this population that seeks to enhance symbolically in his own eyes, lack of be able to tackle the daily ills that beset him, the symbolic defeat America by Ben Laden is enough to make a hero, a hero becoming a martyra martyr goes mutate over time, in saint »;
[ Party of Belgian Labour (PTB) « For which works Ossama Ben Laden? »], solidarity, no 36, 26 September 2001 : « Osama bin Laden seems to have become the hero of a part of the population of the Muslim world who, humiliated by decades of imperialist oppression, sees him as a symbol of anti-imperialism. ». But one must distinguish between anger justified of the population against the United States and motivations of a certain Muslim fundamentalism. »
12.↑ Ria Novosti: «The Hezbollah denies any collusion with Al-Qaida»
13.↑ Fatwa issued by the Islamic Spain Commission, March 2005
14.↑ « Unusual: ten things to know about Oussama Ben Laden », Jeune Afrique on
15.↑ ‘ Bin Laden, a fortune blurred in the service of terrorism ‘, on Le Figaro
16.↑ Official group site
17.↑ Official website of the company. (in theworldjournal.com)
18.↑ Agency TTY, November 9, 2001.
19.↑ a, b and c Alain Gresh, « The death of Osama bin Laden », New Oriental, in blogging in the diplomatic world, 2 May 2011
20.↑ » Son of a wealthy entrepreneur Saudi, Osama bin Laden had become the world’s most wanted man « , on France Tv Info
21.↑ « Saudi Arabia, private Arab spring? ‘, on the world religions
22.↑ » How the Salafi movement carbide Saudi petrodollars « , on France 24
23.↑ Robert Gates, From the Shadows, Simon & Schuster (1997)
24.↑ Le Nouvel Observateur, no 1732, from 15 to 21 January 1998, p. 76
25.↑ Noam Chomsky, propaganda, interviews with David Barsamian, collection fact and cause, Fayard (2002), p. 9
26.↑ According to the testimony of one of his men appeared in the newspaper Le Monde of December 7, 2001
27.↑ » Ten years ago, Commander Massoud was assassinated « , on France evening
28.↑ « Pakistan: the new Taliban Crossfire », Alternatives – international
29.↑ Noam Chomsky, Israel, Palestine, United States: the fateful triangle, edition updated (March 1999), p. 10
30.↑ « Of the holy war on terror », by Jakob Gottschau
31.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune Allen Lane (Penguin Group), 2008 (ISBN 978-1-8461-4159-1) p. 376
32.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune p. 381
33.↑ Bin Laden, the man who lived twice, The Economist
34.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune at p. 401, 405-408
35.↑ (en) Steve Coll, The Bin Ladens: The Story of a Family and Its Fortune p. 401
36.↑ » Crossfire on the Royal family of Saud « , on Courrier International
37.↑ See, e.g., (en) Alija Izetbegovic on History Commons, and many references.
39.↑ » The evolution of American policy in the region of the Caspian Sea « , Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique
40.↑ » The Pakistan again threatened by the Sunni-Shia divide « , to The world
41.↑ a and b « Islamism and United States, for an alliance against Europe? ‘, on Spirit European
42.↑ (en)[PDF] collective Expertise of terrorism in Europe: actions and syntheses, Saint-Denis La Plaine, national Institute of advanced studies of safety, 2006, pp. 31-32 [read online (page consulted on 19 November 2013)]
43.↑ (fr) – Al-Qaida, Globalterrorwatch
44.↑ Guillaume Dasquié and Jean-Charles Brisard, Bin Laden – the forbidden truth, Éditions Denoël, Paris, 2001, (ISBN 978-2-207-25320-5) , p.?.
45.↑ (en) Spain: warrant of international judgment of Judge Garzón for… Ben Laden!, September 18, 2003, Latin reporters
46.↑ (en) ‘INTERPOL publish the 3000e red notice of the year’, December 14, 2007, Interpol
47.↑ (en) the great game of Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistani intelligence (3), Philippe Raggi, 2004
48.↑ Qiao Liang, Wang Xiangsui, War out of range, Payot, Rivages, 2003, (ISBN 978-2-7436-1149-1)
49.↑ (en) wanted by the FBI
50.↑ (fr) [PDF] collective of terrorism in Europe Expertise, national Institute of security studies, 2006, p. 39
51.↑ (fr) website of the Committee on sanctions against Al-Qaida and the Taliban
52.↑ (en)[PDF] Resolution 1377 (2001)
53.↑ (fr) Resolution 1390 (2002)
54.↑ (en) Common Position of the Council of 27 May 2002 concerning restrictive measures against Usama bin Laden, members of the Al-Qaida organisation and the Taliban and other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with and repealing common positions 96/746/CFSP, 1999/727/CFSP, 2001/154/CFSP and 2001/771/CFSP
55.↑ (en) Sheet of bin Laden on the FBI website
56.↑ (en) Lost at Tora Bora , Mary Anne Weaver , New York Times September 11, 2005
57.↑ (en) Bruce Riedel, « « . Bin Laden’s Wives’ Stories of Post-9/11 Life Casts More Suspicion on Pakistan « » , The Daily Beast March 8, 2012 (online ))
58.↑ (en) Bin Laden May Have Lived at Abbottabad Compound for Six Years Jay Newton-Small, Time Sawampand, may 3, 2011
59.↑ The end of ten years of stalking, Roland Jacquard, France Info, may 2, 2011
60.↑ (en) Ron Suskind, The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of Its Enemies Since 9/11 , Simon & Schuster, 2006, p. 237; 
61.↑ ‘ A new message attributed to bin Laden ‘, Le Figaro
62.↑ Article in the Figaro : here is the new video of Osama bin Laden, 07/09/2007
63.↑ Transcript in french of the message of Osama bin Laden on the site Against Info, 08/09/2007
64.↑ [PDF] Tora Bora revisited: How we failed to get Bin laden and why it matters today , United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, November 30, 2009.
65.↑ The United States were able to capture Bin Laden in 2001, LeMonde.fr, September 29, 2009, (page accessed on September 30, 2009).
66.↑ ‘No information on bin Laden for years’, NouvelObs.com, put online on December 6, 2009
67.↑ Contact details: 34 ° 10′ 09″ N 73 ° 14′ 33″ E
68.↑ Corine Lesnes, « the raid on the compound of Ben Laden: details», blog of Corine Lesnes, 2 May 2011
69.↑ a and b (en) « Osama Bin Laden Dead », blog of the White House, 2 May 2011
70.↑ «The body of bin Laden would have immersed in sea», West-France, may 2, 2011.
71.↑ ‘ Reactions to the death of Ben Laden: George W. Bush greets a « victory for America »», Le Point, may 2, 2011.
72.↑ Figaro.fr from 27-4-2011
73.↑ Monde.fr from 28-4-2011
74.↑ has and b Osama bin Laden killed: CIA admits waterboarding yielded vital information – The Telegraph of May 7, 2011
75.↑ a and b The Messenger that led to Ben Laden: Yahoo News may 3, 2011
76.↑ Ben Laden/operation: vigilante UN, Le Figaro, 5-4-2011
77.↑ Tf1 News from 5-5-2011
78.↑ « Al-Qaeda confirms death of bin Laden and threatens to avenge him », on RFI
79.↑ « Death of bin Laden: countries strengthen their security », on Le Figaro
80.↑ » The toll of the attack to avenge bin Laden has risen « , to The world
81.↑ ‘ The Taliban claim a violent attack in Pakistan to avenge the death of bin Laden », on RFI
82.↑ » The United States close the Court bin Laden’s record « , Slate, June 18, 2011 (consulted the June 20, 2011 ))
83.↑ Marc Epstein, « The brain of Al-Qaeda », L’Express, September 11, 2003.
84.↑ ‘How I prepared September 11’, Le Monde.
85.↑ (en) Patrice Claude, « the noose tightens on Osama bin Laden », Le Monde, 9 September 2009 (read online)
86.↑ Alain Rodier, french research on intelligence, Raids 275, April 2009, p. 22-23
87.↑ (fr) notice of Interpol search
88.↑ New York: son-in-law of Ben Laden surprisingly talkative when his trial, Le Parisien, 20 March 2014
89.↑ Ex-al-Qaida spokesman recalls 9/11 with bin Laden, The Washington Post, March 20, 2014
90.↑ Le Monde diplomatique, «Al Qaida, a millenarian sect» , « To put an end to the Arab world » ; The Daily telegraph, ‘Fanatics around the world dream of the Caliph’s return’ ; The Observer, « Where terror begins » ; The Hindu, « Zarqawi – terrorist or Islamist crusader? ‘.
91.↑ Back in Al-Khobar, Politis, magazine article Denis Sieffert.
92.↑ « In these difficult times many hard-to-describe ideas have sprung to mind, but in the end, they provided me an intense rejection of tyranny, sensation and raised in me the resolution to punish the oppressors. »
93.↑ « Ben Laden in 2005video denounced ‘oppression and the embargo that caused millions of deaths, orchestrated by Bush senior in Iraq, is the largest massacre of children that humanity has ever known.’ ‘.
94.↑ In absolute terms we estimate that perhaps about half a million children under 5 years of age have died, who ordinarily would not have died had the decline in mortality that was prevalent over the 70 s and the 80 s continued through the 90s s, Anupama Rao Singh, Director of theUnicef
95.↑ Al Qaïda / Hezbollah: competition between two different action jihadists logics for capturing the hearts and minds of the Umma, Rayan Haddad
96.↑ CNN, February 13, 1999
97.↑ « The Socialists are infidels wherever they are, Baghdad or Aden , » extracted from the tape of February 2003
98.↑ ‘ Messages from bin Laden: very intoxicated info», Le Matin, 25 January 2010.
99.↑ ‘ 9 / 11: « nineteen young people have managed to deflect the compass »», Le Monde, September 9, 2007.
100.↑ Mark Trevelyan, ‘Bin Laden changed image, could report attacks’, Le Monde, September 8, 2007.
101.↑ «Bin Laden threatens Europe and the Pope in a new message», Le Monde, 20 March 2008
102.↑ « Al Jazeera english », may 7, 2011
103.↑ «Osama clips: the period nostalgia», Huyghe.fr, may 8, 2011.
104.↑ a and b Ibrahim Warde, tales and legends of money from terrorism, Le Monde diplomatique, September 2007 (extract of Imperial propaganda & financial counter-terrorism war) 200
105.↑ (en) Article on elwatan.com
106.↑ Miniter, Disinformation, Regenery, p. 33-38
107.↑ « For Ryad, the death of bin Laden is « pure speculation » », Le Figaro
108.↑ Benazir Bhutto: Bin Laden killed, of setfree69, YouTube
110.↑ (en) Reuters, ‘ Ben Laden: porn movies in its cache », on Le Figaro, 14 May 2011 (consulted the June 24, 2011 ))
111.↑ (en) Adrien Gaboulaud, » bin Laden liked the Coca and good shampoo… including « , on France evening, may 4, 2011 (consulted the June 24, 2011 ))
112.↑ (en) Adrien Gaboulaud, » when Washington tries to undermine bin Laden myth « , on The JDD, May 14, 2011 (consulted the June 24, 2011 ))
113.↑ « Ben Laden: a »global terrorist »impact survey », Rue89, November 5, 2008.
114.↑ «Ben Laden, the true face of a «illuminated»», Baksheesh, November 18, 2008.
115.↑ Actua BD: Mohamed Sifaoui, Ben Laden unveiled. This is not the courage
v · m
The FBI ten most wanted fugitives
September 18, 2014
Víctor Manuel Gerena (en) · Glen Stewart Godwin · Robert William Fisher · Alexis Flores (en) · Jason Derek Brown (en) · Eduardo Ravelo · Semyon Mogilevich · Fidel Urbina (en) · Bradford Bishop (en) · Eric Matthew brake (en)
Included on the list
Warren Jeffs · Angela Davis · Eduardo Ravelo · James Earl Ray · Christopher Wilder · Ted Bundy · Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi · Andrew Cunanan · Jesse James Hollywood · Leonard Peltier · Marc Rich · Edward Eugene Harper · Osama bin Laden
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