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HSBC banking giant shelter cash linked to dictators and arms dealers

The team of journalists from 45 countries unearths secret bank accounts maintained for criminals, traffickers and fraudsters, politicians and celebrities

A team of journalists from 45 countries has updated the secret bank accounts maintained for criminals, traffickers and fraudsters, politicians and celebrities.

Secret documents reveal this giant of the World BankHSBCbenefited from doing business with arms dealers who piped shells of mortar to child soldiers inAfrica, men’s bag for the third world dictators, traffickers of blood diamonds and other international outlaws.

Leak files based on the internal functioning of the Swiss private bank HSBC Arm refer to accounts holding more than $100 billion. They offer a rare overview inside the super secret Swiss banking – United Nations public has never seen before.

Documents, their the International Consortium of investigative journalists Journal No. normal the nominal French Le Monde, show the relations of the Bank with many clients engaged in a range of illegal behaviour, especially in the clandestine nature of the hundreds of millions of dollars of the tax administration.

Records

They also show private other folders clients, including famous football and players of tennis, cyclists, rock stars, Hollywood actors, royalty, politicians, business executives and families of old-wealth.

These revelations shed light on the intersection of international crime and legitimate commercial, and they expand considerably that known potentially illegal or immoral in recent years at HSBC, one of the largest banks in the world.

Account leaked records show some customers, making trips to Geneva, to remove large bundles of money, sometimes in used notes. Font également State of the sums files, controlled by the diamond dealers who are known have been exploited in war zones and sold precious stones pour financier insurgencies that have claimed countless lives.

HSBC, which has its headquarters in London and in offices has 74 countries and territories on six continents, at first insisted that ICIJ destroy data.

Late last month, after being informed of the magnitude of the results of the « reporting team, HSBC gave a definitive answer which was more conciliatory, saying fr ICIJ: »We recognize that the culture of compliance and standards of due diligence in Swiss private banking of HSBC, as well as the industry in general, were significantly lower than they are today. ».

The written statement, said the Bank had « taken significant steps over the last years pay to implement reforms and leave customers who did not meet the standards of new HSBC, including those where we had concerns with respect to compliance with tax rules. »

The Bank added that it had refocused this part of its business. « As a result of this repositioning, Swiss private bank, HSBC has reduced its customer base of more than 70% since 2007. »

Comment offshore banking houses money and secret cache of huge implications pour societies around the world. Academics believe conservative than 7.6 billion from $ held in tax havens overseas overseas, good Government of Treasury Board costing the of the nominal billions of less than $200 of a.

« The offshore industry is a major threat pour our democratic institutions of our social contract basis, » Economist FrenchThomas Piketty, of the Capital in the twenty-first century author dit ICIJ.

« Financial opacity is one of the main drivers of the rise of global inequalities. It allows a large fraction of higher income and wealth than pay tax GLAST rates, while the rest of us payer of taxing large to finance goods and public services (education, health, infrastructure) which are indispensable pour the development process groups. »

Tax tactics

Normal obtained secret files ICIJ – covering the accounts until 2007, associated for more than 100 000 persons and morales more than 200 countries–are a variation of those that the French Government has obtained and shared with other Governments in 2010, leading to lawsuits or settlements with individuals pour tax evasion in several countries. United Nations, not the tax authorities received the French files include the United States, Spain, Italy, Greece, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, India, Belgium and Argentina.

It is not illegal in most countries maintain offshore bank accounts, and considered as tenant HSBC Private Bank account itself is no indication of any wrongdoing.

Some who are named in the files may have had a privilege any with a Swiss bank account, as a power, while steps have money in the account, or have only a part of it. Others in files may not yet have a Swiss bank account.

Hollywood actorJohn Malkovichfor example, said par UN Representative that he knows nothing about an account indicating son nom and conjectured that it might have to do withBernard Madoff, the former stockbroker recognized guilty of fraud which dealt with some of its finances.

A representative of British actressJoan Collinsan ICIJ vid: ‘ in 1993 my client deposited funds in a bank account in London and subsequently discovered that, without instructions from its, the money had been transferred on the account Switzerland mentioned in your letter.» The representative added that no tax has been avoided.

TheDavid Bowierock star responded to ICIJ media partner The Guardian that he a was a legal resident of acceptance ofSwitzerlandsince 1976. Tina Turner, although regarded by many as a typically American singer, lives in Switzerland since nearly two decades and has renounced his citizenship American en 2013.

In many cases, however, records describe dubious behaviour, tells bankers advises clients on how to take a series of measures to avoid paying taxes in their country of origin – and clients telling bankers that their accounts are not reported to their Government.

Lax controls

The declaration by a team of media from 45 countries and ICIJ organizations go further in dark HSBC a corners 2012 U.S.Senateinvestigation, which revealed that the Bank had lax controls that allowedLatin Americapay launder hundreds of millions of dollars of assets improperly acquired through its operations in the United Statesmaking it usable sale, the drogue cartels money.

The Senate permanent Subcommittee on the detailed investigations into HSBC report said also that certain banks affiliated skirt United States Government prohibitions against financial transactions withIranand other countries. HSBC and U.S. division provided money and banking services to banks of Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh is believed to help fund Al-Qaïda and other terrorist groups, according to the report.

In 2012, HSBC agreed to pay more than $1.9 billion to settle US criminal and civil investigations and a prosecution delayed five-year agreement.

A source of personnel of the Subcommittee said the Senate investigators had requested records of HSBC Private Bank account obtained by ICIJ and been refused by the Board of the Bank. The new documents indicate activity of the Bank in other regions of the world and reveal a new range of debts and the measures taken by the Bank.

The revelations of ICIJ come also from that the Wall Street Journal reported in January that the independent monitor appointed to the Bank, a logbook which should be made public in April, an interim report will show that HSBC will fail in its attempts to reform.

International casting

Documents obtained normal ICIJ are based on data originally introduced smuggled on by a former HSBC employee-turned-whistleblower, Hervé Falciani and handed over to the French in 2008. Material World from l ‘ investigation of « tax authority Français in the files and then communicated material of the French ICIJ tax administration with the agreement which ICIJ could gather a team of journalists from several countries that could pass through the data in all the angles.

Of ICIJ enrolled more than 140 journalists from 45 pays, including journalists from the world, The Irish Times, the BBC, the Guardian, 60 Minutes, Süddeutsche Zeitung and more than 45 other media organizations.

Journalists found the names of politicians current and former Great Britain,Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kenya, Romania, India,Liechtenstein, Mexico, Tunisia, the Democratic Republic of theCongo, Zimbabwe, Rwanda, Paraguay, Djibouti, Senegal, thePhilippinesandAlgeria, among others.

They found several people on the U.S. sanctions list current, tells thatSelim Alguadisa Turkish businessman alleged has provided sophisticated appliances pour draft nuclear secret weapons of Libya and Gennady Timchenko, a collaborator of the billionaire of Russian PresidentVladimir Putinand one of the main targets of the sanctions imposed on Russian individuals and businesses in response to annexation of the Crimea and the crisis in Eastern Ukraine.

Files do not state ‘ Mr. Alguadis or Mr Timchenko exact roles in relation to the Swiss accounts. United Nations spokesman Mr Timchenko says the reasons pay that sanctions were « pulled by the hair and deeply flawed’ and customer’s son has always »been fully compliant with all taxes related issues ».

Some clients millions and sometimes tens of millions of dollars in their accounts are politically connected figures such asRachid Mohamed RachidMinister of former Egyptian trade who fled to Cairo in February 2011 at the heart of the insurgency againstHosni Mubarak. Mr. Rachid, who is quoted as having a proxy on an account with a value of $31 million, was sentenced in absentia of profiteers and Microsoft further squandering funds public.

Microsoft names other folders in the: endFrantz Merceronthe bagman alleged former President HaitianJean Claude »Baby Doc » Duvalier, who was will devote to have looted up to $900 million before fleeing son pays, andRami Makhloufdoes cousin and close associate, Syrian presidentBasharal Assad, over the past three years has helped cause the death of tens of thousands of his fellow citizens in the civil war. Mr. Merceron is listed as a lawyer on an account of 1.3 million from $ son wife-owned. Mr. Makhlouf is listed as a beneficial owner on several accounts.

Legal proceedings

The files include people who appear in judicial proceedings, such asVladimir Antonovowner of the former of an English football club,Portsmouth FCwhich is facing lawsuits enLithuaniaon an alleged bank fraud of €500 million people;Margulan SeisembayevKazakh banker, will devote the Alliance Bank of looting of its assets and Tancred Tabone, the former head of the oil company of State MaltaEnemalta, which is facing lawsuits pour allegedly demanding bribes.

In a statement, counsel Mr. Tabone said that his client denies all the charges and said that he « authorized officially to the Swiss authorities to provide all this information. … Their tax affairs in this regard are in order ».

Mr. Antonov is listed as a beneficial owner on an account with a value of $65 million. Seisembayev is listed as beneficial owner of multiple accounts. UN Representative one shit ICIJ declared Guardianreporting partner, ‘ Mr.Antonov is not and has never been a tax resident in the United Kingdom.  » He opened Swiss accounts consult you in 2008 to pay commercial reasons and because Swiss banks offer a better level of care to clients and are much more flexible than banks in the United Kingdom. »

Different names

In a reflection of the variety of names in the data, others which appear areLi Xiaolinthe daughter of the former Chinese Prime MinisterLi Pengfamous for his role in the Tiananmen Square massacre.Joseph Fok, judge in Hong Kong more high court and prince and Princess Michael of Kent, a cousin ofThe Queen ElizabethII ofEnglandand son married.

The account which can be bound pour prince and Princess is held on behalf of their company,CantiumServices Limited. Representative of the United Nations pay the couple « never received or required of all funds », said the account and was closed in 2009. Li Xiaolin is listed, with her husband, an owner of an account held 2.5 million from $. Mr. Fok is listed as the holder of an account which was closed in 2002. They the not responded to requests for comment.

The files reflect a range of royalty, from King Mohammed VI ofMorocco, crown-prince ofBahrain, the prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa, to dozens of members of the ruling family of Saudi Arabia. Many have been partial or fully beneficial owners of accounts. The role of the King of the Morocco was not specified.

Turnover and donor of U.S. policies include the financier and philanthropist, s.Donald SussmanDon’t the account prior to his marriage with the Member of the Democratic Congress of Chellie PingreeMaineowner billionaire’s chain of lingerie Victoria Secret of Les Wexner, who, in 2012, has donated $250 000 pour a super CAP support former Republican presidential candidateMitt Romney. and the Steinmetz diamond-dealing with Israeli family.

The Wall Street Journal reported in 2007 that the venture capital of the SteinmetzSage Capitalgrowth paid generous benefits family company pour speeches and other services toRudy Giuliani, the former Mayor of New York, hailed as an organized crime and fighting corruption exercising later unsuccessful Republican presidential nomination.

Mr. Sussman said UN representative account wasn’t his own, adding that he had a passive investment in a technology venture fund. The representative said it is this Fund who has the account, not the existence, he learned for the first time interviewed by ICIJ. «Mr. Sussman investments were minority interests», said the spokesman, « and he had no involvement in the management of funds, investment decisions or other activities.

Mr. Wexner , nor family Steinmetz has responded to requests for comment.

An analysis of nominal files ICIJ shows that many individuals within the accounts took extra precautions to protect their identities, personal Similarly if the HSBC assured customers repeatedly they were already bound by the tight Swiss banking secrecy.

Tax havens

Many accounts were inmates normal companies in offshore tax havens such as theBritish Virgin Islands, Panamaor in the « Pacific ofNiueIsland, rather than normal people who had money.  » Most used thousands of anonymous, numbered accounts.

In the documents, UN employee of HSBC refers to one of the most important companies of the Australia figures,Charles Barrington Goode, normal initials.

« Acct holder, Mr. Ch.B.G. wishes to be calledMr. Shaw (item acct). If all the discussion we are talking about Mr. Shaw, »the staff member a document written only NOF of the United Nations. Mr. Goode one of account held under the name « SHAW99. »

Note at the time of the Goode was the President of the ANZ Bank, one of the largest in the Australia. In its other role in political life, Goode was called by a Senator during the debate in the Australian Parliament in 2001 ‘a man’ who is the bearer of bag, collection of funds, for the liberal party, the current party in power of the Australian Prime Minister, Tony Abbott.

Two foundations Goode was publicly involved inAustralia- theFoundation of CormackandValpoldPty Ltd – gave more than Aus$ 30 million to theVictoriabranch of theliberal partybetween 1998 and 2013, according to documents filed with theAustralian Electoral Commission.

Goode told ICIJ that he opened his account 30 years ago and the Bank insisted that using a pseudonym. « The agent of the Bank told me that pour safety reasons, I need a name, other than my own name or a number, identify the account and that I should use in contacting the Bank. I chose the name « Shaw ». « Mr. Goode said ‘the account was inactive for about 25 years’ and before it closed the account five years ago he had it said to the Australian tax authorities and tax paid on income it derives. »

New questions

Documents raise new questions about the recent public statements made normal HSBC which staff did not help the customers to engage in tax evasion. In July 2008, for example, Chris Meares, then head of private banking of HSBC, told a British parliamentary hearing: « we forbid our bankers to encourage or d ‘ be involved in tax evasion.  »

Three more early client of rich United Nations British years,Keith Humphreysadministrator of theEnglish Premier League Stoke City FC soccer club, is described telling Manager HSBC son one of the Swiss family accounts was « not declared » to the British tax authorities. Files of « State it held more than $450 000 time from to the. »

Mr. Humphreys told ICIJ media partner, the Guardian, that Switzerland account was held not by him but by son father and it was later impede disclosed to the authorities. The account, he said, « has been established in accordance with the financial advice given to it at the time » and disclosed to the British tax authorities in 2011, with a basic £147 165.

On the other hand, an employee of HSBC one wrote this note in the Irish businessmanJohn Cashellfile, which would be later pleaded guilty to three counts of filing inaccurate income – in 2001, 2002 and 2003 – with regard to interests not of on offshore accounts containing almost €800 000.

« His concern is the risk of disclosure to the Irish authorities. Once again I tried to reassure him that there is no risk of what happens. « Mr. Cashell did not respond to requests for comment.

Hurt snipped

The Bank itself became ill at chiseled on a transaction of €20 million by a Serbian businessman. But Bank employees simply asked him to act less pointedly: « more that according the today the Bank is not blurred [SIC] wire transfer of money from the acquisitions, » says relevant document, « but would have preferred to reduce these activities on a smaller scale. [He] understands our concerns and use smaller quantities. »

Staff HSBC apparently also show little interest in the description they received a Canadian doctor,Irwin Rodier. « This customer is paranoid somwhat [SIC], for example whenever he arrived at ZH [ZURICH], it flew to Paris and rented a car to drive in ZH, pour not again adopt its final destination, etc.

CBC/Radio-Canada he had prepared since his taxes with the Canadian authorities in partner Rodier told ICIJ media.

In his statement to ICIJ, HSBC said: « in the past, the Swiss private banking sector operated very differently to the way it does today. » The private banks, including the Swiss private bank of HSBC, has assumed this responsibility for the payment of fees to individual customers, rather than the institutions who have cashed their. »

L « l tax » savings

Records show that some European customers have received advice on the way of « avoid a restraint d ‘tax on l’ bank savings, which entered into force in theEuropean Unionpay in 2005 » Switzerland had agreed to implement the tax – called the European Directive on the ‘savings, or ESD.

But ESD refers only to individuals, not corporations. Records show that HSBC Private Bank seized on this loophole to market products which has transformed individuals in corporations for tax purposes.

The documents indicate that day after day. throughout 2005, clients are Mobiliar in Switzerland to make withdrawals in British pounds, Euros, Swiss francs, US dollars, same Danish krone – sometimes requiring little used notes.

One of those provided with money provides dollars and euros was Arturo del Tiempomarks, a real estate developer sentenced in 2013 to a sentence of seven years in prison in Spain of pour cocaine smuggling. It controlled up to 19 accounts HSBC containing more than $3 million. He did not respond to requests for comment.

Transaction of a single,Richard CaringBritish business Tycoon, accompanied by security, was depicted in September 2005, collecting more than 5 million Swiss francs in cash.

HSBC staff explains caring delivered the huge amount of money by quoting a statement made by him, planned to deposit money with another Swiss Bank, that it did not on the other Bank to be aware of the other. They wrote: ‘ RC great efforts will pay maintain discretion.

Representative of United Nations caring told the Guardian that he has not avoided taxes and son that « offshore use Fund was carried out according to the principles of the »tax is used and accepted.

The files show caring, major donors to British policy, transfer $1 million to theClinton FoundationNations United, but non-profit established by former U.S. presidentBill Clintonwith the the mission « the capacity of people in theUnited States of Americaand the world pay for the challenges of global interdependence ».

Donation to the Clinton Foundation requested in December 2005. The previous month, Mr Caring backed a champagne extravaganza and caviar at the Winter Palace of Catherine the great in St. Petersburg, Russia, flying to 450 guests to be entertained by Sir Elton John and Tina Turner and addressed normal of Bill Clinton. The event raised more than £11 million paid to the charity for children.

Donors

A number of other prominent donors to the Clinton Foundation appear in files, including businessmanFrank Giustraand automobile German superstarMichael Schumacher, a seven-time Canadian champion of formula 1. UN Representative of Schumacher, who is listed as a beneficial owner of an account closed in 2002, an ICIJ’s said that he was a long term resident Switzerland.

Records indicate Giustra is the only person in an HSBC en 2006/2007 account, with more than $10 million although its role in the account is not specified

The New York Times reported in 2008 that Giustra donated to shortly after accompanied Bill Clinton Foundation Clinton Giustra during a trip toKazakhstanin 2005. When they landed, Nursultan Nazarbayev A., who served for decades as president of the Kazakhstan, met his two visitors during a banquet sumptuous midnight.

The Times reported that Mr. Clinton has made a public statement of support to Nazarbayev that was at odds with the position of the U.S. Government and wife Clinton and SenatorHillary Rodham Clinton, who had criticized the registration of the Kazakhstan human rights. Two days later, documents showed, Mr. Giustra company won the right buy in three public projects of uranium in the Kazakhstan.

Both ClintonandMr. Giustra told the New York Times that Mr. Giustra traveled with Mr. Clinton in the Kazakhstan pour see first hand of philanthropic work of the Foundation. Spokesman of the United Nations Mr. Clinton told the newspaper that the former President was generally aware of the mining interests of Mr Giustra to the Kazakhstan, but did nothing pay first aider with these interests.

A spokesman for the Clinton Foundation told the Guardian he « a strong integrity and transparency the donor practices that go well beyond what is required of the American charities, including full disclosure of all our donors ».

Investigations

Normal shared data the French authorities with other Governments are now the basis of official investigations in several countries. French judges examine the Bank assistance some customers to to avoid paying taxes of 2006 and 2007. The French authorities to HSBC to file a caveat of €50 million. Belgian prosecutors last year an also Accused the Bank of tax evasion.

In August 2014, Argentine tax officials raided the offices of the HSBC inBuenos Aires. The Buenos Aires Herald reported that Argentine tax Chief Ricardo Echegaray , one of HSBC Accused « roll on a platform for fraud » as « a manoeuvre pour information the any bank account of tax collectors.

HSBC said in its statement to ICIJ that he was ‘fully committed to the exchange of information with the competent authorities’ and ‘was actively pursuing measures which guarantee that customers are transparent, even before a legal or regulatory obligation in respect of the tax. We are also cooperation with the competent authorities, investigate these issues. »

The documents raise questions about why there were also surveys in some countries and in other not – and if certain investigations have been less that laborious.

For example, some larger documents relates to the Bank’s British customers. First tax of investigations by the French one, identified more 5 000 British clients related to 61 $ billion in deposits HSBC – more customers and more money than any other country.

Although the French investigators were probably initially estimated – on the real amounts normal customers, the British tax authorities concluded that 3 600 5 000 names he received Français en 2010 were « potentially non-compliant. » A report of a Committee of the House of Commons in September 2014, said l ‘ tax authorities had recovered just £135 million in thus d ‘ taxes people por on the list, normal compared to £220 million collected by the Spain and nominal £188 million collected France.

Lord,Stephen Green, the head of HSBC in the period records cover, later became Minister of trade in theCameronGovernment in Britain, a post he held until 2013.

Apart from the judgments of the Court in United States federal courts, it seems that the Internal Revenue Service of United States also visited on sons work quietly despite the French tax investigators having identified the 1,400 people with American connections, with approximately $16 billion. Once again, this figure was higher than the amounts indicated normal ICIJ.

THE IRS

In a statement to media ICIJ 60 Minutes partner, the IRS stated that because American taxpayers first were encouraged to present interfere with details in 2009, from their offshore operations « there were more than 50 000 disclosures and we collected more than $7 billion of this single initiative ».

Office refused to Envertudelaloi the number, if any, of those who came forward EU accounts with HSBC.

What happened after France Greece sending the names of over 2 000 customers Greek HSBC raised an outcry a now former Minister of Finance of the Greece faced with lawsuits.

In 2010, the Greece received names, but nothing happened until October 2012, when a Greek magazine, Hot Doc, published the names and noted the lack of an investigation if rich Greeks were evading taxes while the country was undergoing austerity measures, including pay cuts and tax hikes pay those who paid.

Unlike the esplorqare with which they had gone after a tax evasion assent, the Greek authorities have been guests to stop Hot Doc EditorKostas Vaxevanisand accuse him of violating privacy laws.

He was quickly acquitted, and his trial has provoked anger when two former heads of the financial police testified that former Minister of financeGiorgos Papakonstantinou, nor his successor had ordered an investigation into the list. Mr. Papakonstantinou said it was gone.

When the list has finally surfaced, it lacked the names of the three members of the family of Mr. Papakonstantinou. He now faces criminal charges alleging breach of trust, Inkwell, an official document and repression more in addition to the duty of the breach of the names of the members of his family and his inability to act on the list the when he received it.

Weapon merchant

HSBC keptAziza Kulsumand his family as customers even after Kulsum a shit of nominal namedUnited Nationsin funding of the bloody civil war Burundi in the1990s.

The report of the United Nations in 2001 also mentioned thatMs. Kulsumwas UN key player in theDemocratic Republic of the Congoin the illicit trade in coltan, a strategically important mineral used in electronics. A large part of the world’s supply of coltan comes from areas of conflict in Central Africa, where armed factions control many mines, extort minors and take advantage of the illegal sale of any Ore

While both emman accounts were closed before 2001, a third value has 3.2 million from $ was frozen (but not closed) pay unspecified « reasons for compliance » at an unknown date. Ms. Kulsum husband had a connection not specified to another account which was not closed and held an additional 1.6 million from $ at a time given en 2006/2007. HSBC named Kulsum « businesswoman (Pierre and noble metals) » and the owner of a cigarette factory.

Another account appears doubtful under nameKatex MineGuinea. According to a 2003 report of the United Nations, Katex Mine a summer used by the Department of Guinea’s defence with the arms of the movement for rebel soldiers in a society Liberia of the courts to combat en 2003.

Inexperienced of child soldiers fought on both sides. hundreds of people have been killed and over 2 000 injured. The account is shown with 7.14 million from $ in three years after the reports of the United Nations on the Katex Mine has been made public.

Other notes show the employees of client, Shailesh Vithlani, to HSBC fromDar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2005, pour inform him of how to best invest silver wires. The Guardian reported in 2007 Québec Vithlani, that is named as beneficiary of an account owner, it was an intermediary codified who organized the company British arms BAE secretly paying $12 million on a bank Switzerland account not specified in Exchange the Government direction, purchasing an overpriced military radar system. Mr. Vithlani, who could not be reached pour comment, not declared to the Guardian in 2007 it paid money to the Switzerland to officials in Tanzania.

Desktop anti-counterfeiting

HSBC UN a client linked to BAE wasFana Hlongwane, a political advisor of South African and human affairs. The serious fraud Office of the United Kingdom said in statements submitted to the South African prosecutors in 2008 Mr. Hlongwane received money from BAE through a disguised chain of intermediaries at the grand to promote weapons.

Counsel for Mr. Hlongwane has not responded to repeated requests pour comment.

In an affidavit by 2014 is an ongoing investigation on contracts for armaments, Mr. Hlongwane denied « any evidence involving myself or my companies in any corruption or fault. »

Mr. Hlongwane is listed as the beneficiary of an account, Leynier finance SA, which contained $888 000. Two other accounts held $12 million sometime in 2006/2007 do not specify son exact role.

Another account holder seems to be linked to the Asad_p2 scandal.

In 2008, French prosecutors initiated proceedings against more than 40 people v inAngolacorrupt arms sales in the 1990s. The scandal, which was focus of participating more than $ 50 million bribes exchanged for contracts with a value of almost $800 million, named figures prestigious French, does the French former President Francois Mitterrand son.

The account probably linked to the Asad_p2 doubled Corday and opened from 1994 to 1999. The exact role of manual with the account was not specified.

Corday is the name on a series of accounts at HSBC and other banks that have been publicly linked toYves manualwhich also held an account with HSBC and pour forth who died in conviction his role in the scandal.

A decision by the French court in August 2011, said Yves Manuel received and hidden 2.59 million from $ that he knew came from the company having paid bribes to French officials and customs. She did not respond to requests for comment.

Yet another account is located under the name of Wang Chia-Hsing, the son of the intermediary in an infamousTaiwanarms, face,Andrew WangChuan-pu.

Wang Chuan-pu is a fugitive wanted in Taiwan on son alleged role in the murder ofTaiwanese navalCaptain Yin Ching-feng and a series of scandals of Kickback and bribery involving Taiwan, of France andChina.

The South China Morning Post reported that Wang Chuan-pu leaves Taiwan shortly after the body of Yin – who was about to coup whistle on alleged bribery and corruption in the procurement of the Navy’s six frigates Français – was found floating off the coast of the northern coast of the island in December 1993.

The HSBC documents show conversations between Wang Chia-Hsing, who is described as an interior decorator and shown with a high address range of London and HSBC staff, even during a period where the account with more than $38 million was under a freeze order.

The files do not clearly what was the exact role of Wang Chia-Hsing in the account. However, saving files that he has asked the Bank to recognize its status as domicile resident in the United Kingdom, a reference to a national life in the United Kingdom to l ‘foreigner who isn’t paying d’ tax on the income or tax on capital gains on earnings abroad. It is generally considered as a form of « legal tax evasion. The bank note Furthermore indicates that a member of staff at HSBC was willing to backdate a form.

UN Representative of Chia – Hsing Wang says it has « paid all taxes for good reason and has not acted in any way improperly or illegally.  »

Blood diamonds

ICIJ analysis showed that almost 2 000 HSBC customers who appear in files are associated with the diamond industry. Among them is Shallop Emmanuel, who was subsequently found guilty of traffic in blood diamonds.

Blood diamonds, or conflict diamonds, are terms used pour precious stones exploited in war zones that are sold then pour funder of other war. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone and other nations received the label.

«Diamonds have a long history of being linked to the conflict and violence, « saidMichael Gibbof the international groupGlobal Witnesshuman rights. »» « » The ease with which diamonds can be converted into tools of war, when not coming not responsibly, is amazing. »

The documents show that HSBC was aware that Mr. longboat was investigated by the Belgian authorities at a time where he helped him. « We opened a business account pour him based in Dubai. » … The client is very careful because it is under pressure from the Belgian tax authorities, who are investigating his activities in the field of tax fraud of diamond. »

Counsel for Mr. longboat dit ICIJ, « we point [SIC] not want to give any comment on this matter. My client does not want his name in any article pour reasons of confidentiality. »

Other HSBC account holders can be linked to diamonds of Omega, which in 2013, was sentenced to a modified $195 million for the « tax evasion in Belgium. The company has agreed to pay fine but did not admit liability. The Belgian authorities alleged that Omega shifted profits in Dubai by exchanging falsely precious diamonds from mines in the Congo and Angola.

During the period of these alleged transactions, two directors of the company,Ehud Arye LaniadoandSylvain Goldberg, each had the HSBC accounts. A third Director of Omega, The Liling de Robert, appears in the files as the owner of several accounts.

Mr. Liling could not be reached pour comment. A spokesman for MrLaniado and Mr. Goldberg said that was continued pour tax offences. «Omega Diamonds-the Belgian tax administration tax dispute was settled out-of-court civil.»

Privileges paid to Al-Qaida?

Privileges of customers of HSBC and Al Qaeda were raised publicly in July 2012 U.S. Senate report, which cites an alleged list internal Al Qaeda financial benefactors.

The Senate report, said the list emerged after a search of offices bosniaque of theBenevolence International Foundation, organization of the United Nations but profit based in Saudi Arabia that the United StatesDepartment of financehas designated as a terrorist organization.

Osama bin Laden, the mastermind behind the 9/11 attacks, referred to as the handwritten list of 20 names of the « golden chain ».

As soon as the names on the list of the golden chain were made public in the news in the spring of 2003, the Senate Subcommittee said that HSBC should be « on notice » and aware of these powerful turnovers were high risk clients.

Although the meaning of the list of the golden chain has since been challenged, the ICIJ found what appears to be three names of gold chain with HSBC accounts Switzerland which existed after that date.

List of Interpol

Persons on the list of the Most Wanted of Interpol, the international police agency, such as traders in diamondsMozes Victor Königand Kenneth Lee Akselrod, are among the HSBC account holders – and thereforeElias Murr, who is Chairman of the Foundation Board of Interpol for United Nationsmore secure world, an organization to combat terrorism and organized crime. Murr, who was a prominent businessman before entering politics, was Minister of the Interior of the Lebanon in 2004 during an HSBC account not owned through a company called Callorford Investments Limited. In 2006-2007, the account would contain $42 million.

A spokesman for Murr, richness of client’s son and his family is widely known, and his family held accounts in Switzerland since before his birth. The account was not linked to its political role. « It is not illegal and is not of he suspects that a Lebanese national opens and maintains the accounts anywhere.  »

Secret documents reveal this giant of World Bank HSBC advantage of doing business with arms dealers who channeled the mortar shells to child soldiers in Africa , men’s bag for the third world dictators, diamonds of blood and other international outlaw traffickers.

Leak files based on the internal functioning of the Swiss private bank HSBC Arm refer to accounts holding more than $100 billion. They offer a rare overview inside super-secret Swiss banking system – a public has never seen before.

The documents, obtained by the International Consortium of investigative by the French Le Mondenewspaper journalists, show the relations of the Bank with many clients engaged in a range of illegal behaviour, especially in the clandestine nature of the hundreds of millions of dollars of the tax administration.
•Commissioner Niall Cody.Photograph: Eric Luke / The Irish TimesSwiss has refused the request for help to conduct the prosecution of HSBC
•The headquarters of HSBC in Canary Wharf, London. Photograph: Simon Dawson/BloombergNew British law could see bankers prosecuted for aiding tax evasion
•HSBC chief executive Stuart Gulliver said in the newspaper advert apologies:“We must show we understand that the societies we serve expect more from us.” Photograph: Jerome Favre/BloombergHSBC apology ads give cause for reflection

Records

They also show private other folders clients, including the famous soccer and tennis, cycling, stars of rock, Hollywood actors, royalty, politicians, business executives and families of old-rich players.

These revelations shed light on the intersection of international crime and legitimate commercial, and they expand considerably that known potentially illegal or immoral in recent years at HSBC, one of the largest banks in the world.

Account leaked records show some customers, making trips to Geneva, to remove large bundles of money, sometimes in used notes. Files are also colossal sums, controlled by traders in diamonds which are known were operating in war zones and sold gems to fund the insurgencies that have made countless victims.

HSBC, which has its headquarters in London and has offices in 74 countries and territories on six continents, at first insisted that ICIJ destroy data.

Late last month, after being informed of the magnitude of the results of the reporting team, HSBC gave a definitive answer which was more conciliatory, saying ICIJ: « We recognize that the culture of compliance and standards of due diligence in Swiss private banking of HSBC, as well as the industry in general, were significantly lower than they are today. »

The written statement, said the Bank had « taken significant steps over the past years to implement reforms and leave customers who did not meet the standards of new HSBC, including those where we had concerns with respect to compliance with tax rules. »

The Bank added that it had refocused this part of its business. « As a result of this repositioning, Swiss private bank, HSBC has reduced its customer base of more than 70% since 2007. »

How offshore banking houses money and hide secrets has huge implications for companies around the world. Scholars estimate conservatively that $7.6 trillion held in tax havens overseas, good of the Treasury of the Government of the cost at least $200 billion a year.

« The offshore industry is a major threat to our democratic institutions and our social contract basis, » Economist French Thomas Piketty , author of Capital in the 21st century told ICIJ.

« Financial opacity is one of the main drivers of the rise of global inequalities. It allows a large fraction of higher income and wealth than pay negligible tax rates, while the rest of us pay large taxes in order to finance goods and public services (education, health, infrastructure) that are essential to the development process groups. »

Tax tactics

The secret files obtained by ICIJ – covering the accounts until 2007, associated with more than 100 000 persons and legal entities from more than 200 countries – are a variation of those that the French Government has obtained and shared with other Governments in 2010, leading to lawsuits or settlements with individuals for evasion in several countries. United Nations, which the tax authorities received the French files, which include the United States, Spain, Italy, Greece, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, India, Belgium and Argentina.

It is not illegal in most countries maintain offshore bank accounts, and considered taking into account HSBC Private Bank itself is no indication of any wrongdoing.

Some who are named in the files may have had a link any with a Swiss bank account, as a power, while steps have money in the account, or have only a part of it. Others in files may not yet have a Swiss bank account.

Hollywood actor John Malkovich for example, said through a representative that he knows nothing about an account by specifying its name and conjectured that it might have to do with Bernard Madoff , the former stockbroker recognized guilty of fraud which dealt with some of its finances.

A representative for the actress British Joan Collins told ICIJ: « in 1993 my client deposited funds in a bank account in London and subsequently discovered that, without his instructions, the money had been transferred on the account Switzerland mentioned in your letter. » The representative added that no tax has been avoided.

Rock star David Bowie has responded to ICIJ media partner The Guardian it was a legal resident of Switzerland since 1976. Tina Turner, although regarded by many as a typically American singer, lives in Switzerland since nearly two decades and has renounced his American citizenship in 2013.

In many cases, however, records describes dubious behaviour, such as bankers advises clients on how to take a series of measures to avoid paying taxes in their country of origin – and clients telling bankers that their accounts are not reported to their Government.

Lax controls

The statement by a team of media from 45 countries and ICIJ organizations go further in dark HSBC a corners 2012 U.S. Senate investigation, which revealed that the Bank had lax controls that allowed Latin America to launder hundreds of millions of dollars of assets improperly acquired through its operations in the United Statesmaking it usable money, the drug cartels.

The Senate permanent Subcommittee on the detailed investigations into HSBC report said also that certain banks affiliated skirt United States Government prohibitions against financial transactions with Iran and other countries. And HSBC provided U.S. division money and banking in Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh banks believed to have helped fund Al-Qaïda and other terrorist groups, according to the report.

In 2012, HSBC agreed to pay more than $1.9 billion to settle US criminal and civil investigations and a prosecution delayed five-year agreement.

A source of personnel of the Subcommittee said the Senate investigators had requested records of HSBC Private Bank account obtained by ICIJ and been refused by the Board of the Bank. The new documents indicate activity of the Bank in other regions of the world and reveal a new range of debts and the measures taken by the Bank.

The revelations of ICIJ come also from that the Wall Street Journal reported in January that the independent monitor appointed to the Bank a synopsis that should be made public in April, an interim report will show that HSBC will fail in its attempts to reform.

International casting

Documents obtained by ICIJ is based on data originally introduced smuggled on by a former HSBC employee-turned-whistleblower, Hervé Falciani and handed over to the French authorities in 2008. Material World from the survey of tax authority French in the files and then communicated material of the French ICIJ tax administration with the agreement which ICIJ could gather a team of journalists from several countries that could pass through the data from all angles.

ICIJ enrolled more than 140 journalists from 45 countries, including journalists from Le Monde, The Irish Times, the BBC, the Guardian, 60 Minutes, Süddeutsche Zeitung and more than 45 other media organizations.

Journalists found the names of politicians current and former Great Britain, Russia , Ukraine , Georgia , Kenya , Romania , Liechtenstein , Mexico , Tunisia , India, the Democratic Republic of the Congo , Zimbabwe , Rwanda , Paraguay , Djibouti , Senegal , the Philippines and Algeria , among others.

They found several people on the current US sanctions list, such as Selim Alguadis a Turkish businessman alleged provided appliances sophisticated project of secret nuclear weapons of Libya and Gennady Timchenko, a collaborator of the billionaire of Russian President Vladimir Putin and one of the main targets of the sanctions imposed on Russian individuals and companies in response to the annexation of the Crimea and the crisis in Eastern Ukraine.

The files do not state ‘ Mr. Alguadis or Mr Timchenko exact roles in relation to the Swiss accounts. A spokesman for Mr. Timchenko said the reasons that sanctions were « pulled by the hair and deeply flawed » and that his client has always « been fully compliant with all taxes related issues ».

Some clients millions and sometimes tens of millions of dollars in their accounts are politically connected figures such as Rachid Mohamed Rachid Minister of former Egyptian trade who fled to Cairo in February 2011 at the heart of the insurgency against Hosni Mubarak . Mr. Rachid, who is quoted as having a proxy on an account with a value of $31 million, was sentenced in absentia of profiteers and squandering of public funds.

Other names in the records: the end Frantz Merceron the bagman alleged former President Haitian Jean Claude « Baby Doc » Duvalier, who was accused of having looted up to $900 million before fleeing his country, and Rami Makhlouf including cousin and close associate, Syrian president Bashar al Assad, over the past three years has contributed to cause the death of tens of thousands of his fellow citizens in the civil war. Mr. Merceron is listed as a lawyer on an account of $1.3 million belonging to his wife. Mr. Makhlouf is listed as a beneficial owner on several accounts.

Legal proceedings

The files include people who appear in judicial proceedings, such as Vladimir Antonov the former owner of an English football club, Portsmouth FC who faced trial in Lithuania on an alleged bank fraud of €500 million;Margulan Seisembayev a banker Kazakh, charged by the Bank Alliance of looting of its assets and Tancred Tabone, the former head of the oil company of State Malta Enemalta , who is facing prosecution for allegedly demanding bribes.

In a statement, Mr. Tabone lawyer said that his client denies all the charges and said that he « authorized officially to the Swiss authorities to provide all this information. … Their tax affairs in this regard are in order ».

Mr. Antonov is listed as a beneficial owner on an account with a value of $65 million. Seisembayev is listed as beneficial owner of multiple accounts. A representative said reporting partner ICIJ Guardian, « Mr.Antonov is not and has never been a tax resident in the United Kingdom. » He opened Swiss accounts consult you in 2008 for commercial reasons because that Swiss banks offer a better level of care to clients and are much more flexible than banks in the United Kingdom.  »

Different names

In a reflection of the variety of names in the data, others which appear are Li Xiaolin the daughter of the former Chinese Prime Minister Li Peng famous for his role in the Tiananmen Square massacre.Joseph Fok , judge in Hong Kong more high court and prince and Princess Michael of Kent, a cousin of The Queen Elizabeth II of England and his wife.

The account, which can be linked to the prince and the Princess was held on behalf of their company, Cantium Services Limited. A representative for the couple « never received or required of all funds », said the account and was closed in 2009. Li Xiaolin is listed with her husband, an owner of an account held $2.5 million. Mr. Fok is listed as the holder of an account which was closed in 2002. They did not respond to requests for comment.

The files reflect a range of royalty, from King Mohammed VI of Morocco , crown-prince of Bahrain , the prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa, to dozens of members of the ruling family of Saudi Arabia. Many have been partial or fully beneficial owners of accounts. The role of the King of the Morocco was not specified.

Turnover and donor policies of the US. include the financier and philanthropist s. Donald Sussman , whose account prior to her marriage to the Member of Congress democratic Chellie Pingree of Maine ; the billionaire owner of chain of lingerie Victoria Secret, Les Wexner, who, in 2012, has donated $250 000 for a super Cap former support Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney . and the Steinmetz diamond-dealing with Israeli family.

The Wall Street Journal reported in 2007 that the venture capital family Steinmetz Sage Capital growth company paid generous allowances for speeches and other services to Rudy Giuliani , the former Mayor of New York, hailed as an organized crime and fighting corruption exercising later unsuccessfully the Republican presidential nomination.

A representative of Mr. Sussman said the account was not his, adding that he had a passive investment in a technology venture fund. The representative said it is this Fund which has the account, whose existence, he learned for the first time interviewed by ICIJ. «Mr. Sussman investments were minority interests», said the spokesman, « and he had no involvement in the management of funds, investment decisions or other activities.

Mr. Wexner , nor family Steinmetz has responded to requests for comment.

An analysis of files by ICIJ shows that many individuals within the accounts took extra precautions to protect their identities, even if HSBC staff repeatedly assured clients they were already bound by tight Swiss banking secrecy.

Tax havens

Many accounts were held by companies in tax havens such as the British Virgin Islands , Panama offshore or in the Pacific of Niue Island, rather than by the people who had money. Most used thousands of anonymous, numbered accounts.

In the documents, an employee of HSBC refers to one of the largest companies of the Australia figures, Charles Barrington Goode , by its initials.

« Acct holder, Mr. Ch.B.G. wishes to be called Mr. Shaw (item acct). If all the discussion we are talking about Mr. Shaw, »the staff member wrote in one document. Mr. Goode account took place under the name of « SHAW99. »

At the time of the note, Goode was the President of the ANZ Bank, one of the largest in the Australia. In its other role in political life, Goode was called by a Senator during the debate in the Australian Parliament in 2001 ‘a man’ who is the bearer of bag, collection of funds, for the liberal party, the current party in power of the Australian Prime Minister, Tony Abbott.

Two foundations Goode was publicly involved in Australia – the Foundation of Cormack and Valpold Pty Ltd – gave more than Aus$ 30 million to the Victoria branch of the liberal party between 1998 and 2013, according to documents filed with the Australian Electoral Commission.

Goode told ICIJ that he opened his account 30 years ago and the Bank insisted that he uses a pseudonym. « The agent of the Bank told me that, for security reasons, I need to a name, other than my own name or a number, identify the account and that I should use in contacting the Bank. I chose the name « Shaw ». « Mr. Goode said ‘the account was inactive for about 25 years’ and before it closed the account five years ago he had it said to the Australian tax authorities and tax paid on income it derives. »

New questions

Documents raise new questions about the recent public statements by HSBC which staff did not help the customers to engage in tax evasion. In July 2008, for example, Chris Meares, then head of private banking of HSBC, told a British parliamentary hearing: « We forbid our bankers to encourage or be involved in tax evasion. »

Three years earlier a rich client British, Keith Humphreys , Director of the English Premier League Stoke City FC soccer club, is described by telling his manager of HSBC as one of the Swiss family accounts was « not declared » to the British tax authorities. State files he held more than $450 000 at the time.

Mr. Humphreys told ICIJ media partner, the Guardian, that Switzerland account was held not by him but by his father and that he was later voluntarily disclosed to the authorities. The account, he said, « has been established in accordance with the financial advice given to it at the time » and disclosed to the British tax authorities in 2011, with a base of £147 165.

On the other hand, an employee of HSBC wrote this note in the file of Irish businessman John Cashell , who would later pleaded guilty to three counts of filing incorrect income – in 2001, 2002 and 2003 – in relation to the interests undeclared offshore accounts containing almost €800 000.

« His concern is the risk of disclosure to the Irish authorities. « Once again I tried to reassure him that there is no risk of what happens. » Mr. Cashell did not respond to requests for comment.

Uncomfortable

The Bank itself has become uncomfortable on a transaction of €20 million by a Serbian businessman. But Bank employees simply asked him to act less pointedly: « explained that according to the today the Bank is not blurred [SIC] in its transfer of money from the transactions, » the relevant document said, but would have preferred to reduce these activities on a smaller scale. [He] understands our concerns and use smaller quantities. »

Personal HSBC also seems to show little interest in the description they received a Canadian doctor, Irwin Rodier . « This client is [SIC] paranoid somwhat, for example whenever he arrived at ZH [ZURICH], he flew to Paris and rented a car to drive to ZH, for not adopting new its final destination, etc. »

CBC/Radio-Canada he had prepared since his taxes with the Canadian authorities in partner Rodier told ICIJ media.

In his statement to ICIJ, HSBC said: « in the past, the Swiss private banking sector operate very differently to the way it does today. « The private banks, including the Swiss private bank of HSBC, has assumed this responsibility for the payment of fees to individual customers, rather than the institutions who have cashed their. »

The tax on savings

Records show that some European customers have received advice on how to avoid a withholding tax on bank savings, which entered into force in the EU countries in 2005. Switzerland had agreed to implement the tax – called the European Savings Directive, or ESD.

But ESD refers only to individuals, not corporations. Records show that HSBC Private Bank seized on this loophole to market products which has transformed individuals in corporations for tax purposes.

The documents indicate that day after day. throughout 2005, customers arrived in Switzerland to make withdrawals in British pounds, Euros, francs Swiss, US dollars, same Danish krone – sometimes requiring little used notes.

One of those provided with money provides $ and EUR was Arturo del Tiempo marks , a real estate developer sentenced in 2013 to a sentence of seven years in prison in Spain for cocaine smuggling. It controlled up to 19 accounts HSBC containing more than $3 million. He did not respond to requests for comment.

In one transaction, Richard Caring British business Tycoon, accompanied by security, was depicted in September 2005, collecting more than 5 million Swiss francs in cash.

Personal HSBC explains discount caring the huge amount of money by quoting a statement made by him, planned to deposit money with another Swiss Bank, that it did not on the other Bank to be aware of the other. They wrote: ‘RC will major efforts to maintain discretion ‘.

A Caring representative has told the Guardian that he has not avoided taxes and that his « use of funds offshore was conducted according to the principles of the widely used and accepted tax. »

The files show caring, major donors to British policy, transfer $1 million to the Clinton Foundation a nonprofit set up by former U.S. president Bill Clinton with the mission of « strengthening the capacity of people in the United States of America and the world to meet the challenges of global interdependence ».

The donation to the Clinton Foundation requested in December 2005. The previous month, Mr Caring funded an extravagance champagne and caviar at the Palace winter of Catherine the great in St. Petersburg, Russia, flying to 450 guests to be entertained by Sir Elton John and Tina Turner and addressed by Bill Clinton. The event raised more than £11 million for the charity for children.

Donors

A number of other prominent donors to the Clinton Foundation appear in files, including businessman Frank Giustra and German automotive superstar Michael Schumacher , a seven-time Canadian champion of formula 1. A representative for Schumacher, who is listed as a beneficial owner closed account in 2002, said ICIJ that it is a long-term resident Switzerland.

Records indicate Giustra is the only person in an HSBC account in 2006/2007, with more than $10 million that its role in the account is not specified

The New York Times reported in 2008 that Giustra donated to shortly after accompanied Bill Clinton Foundation Clinton Giustra during a trip to Kazakhstan in 2005. When they landed, Nursultan A. Nazarbayev, who served for decades as president of the Kazakhstan, met his two visitors during a banquet sumptuous midnight.

The Times reported that Mr. Clinton has made a public statement of support to Nazarbayev that was at odds with the position of the U.S. Government and wife Clinton and Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton , who had criticized the registration of the Kazakhstan human rights. Two days later, documents showed, Mr. Giustra company won the right to buy into three uranium public projects to the Kazakhstan.

Both Clinton and Mr. Giustra told the New York Times that Mr. Giustra traveled with Mr. Clinton in the Kazakhstan to see first-hand the Foundation philanthropic work. A spokesman for Mr Clinton told the newspaper that the former President was generally aware of the mining interests of Mr Giustra to the Kazakhstan, but did nothing to help those interests.

A spokesman for the Clinton Foundation told the Guardian he « a strong integrity and transparency the donor practices that go well beyond what is required of the American charities, including full disclosure of all our donors ».

Investigations

Data shared by the French authorities with other Governments are now the basis of official investigations in several countries. French judges consider whether the Bank helped some customers to avoid paying taxes of 2006 and 2007. The French authorities have required HSBC to pay a deposit of €50 million. Belgian prosecutors last year also accused the Bank of tax evasion.

In August 2014, Argentine tax officials raided the offices of the HSBC in Buenos Aires . The Buenos Aires Herald reported that Argentine tax Chief Ricardo Echegaray has accused HSBC of «roll on a platform for the fraud «as «a maneuver to hide information from bank account of tax collectors».»

HSBC said in its statement to ICIJ that he was « fully committed to the exchange of information with the competent authorities » and « was actively pursuing measures which guarantee that customers are transparent, even before a legal or regulatory obligation in respect of the tax. Also cooperation with the competent authorities, we investigate these issues. »

The documents raise questions about why there were also surveys in some countries and not in others, and if some surveys have been less that laborious.

For example, some larger documents relates to the Bank’s British customers. Initial investigations by the French tax authorities identified more than 5 000 British customers related to $61 billion in deposits HSBC – more customers and more money than any other country.

While French investigators were probably initially over-estimated the real amounts held by clients, the British tax authorities concluded that 3 600 5 000 names he has received from the French in 2010 were « potentially non-compliant. » A report of a Committee of the House of Commons in September 2014, said the tax authorities had recovered just £135 million in back taxes of individuals on the list, compared with £220 million collected by the Spain and £188 million collected by France.

Lord Stephen Green , the head of HSBC during the recordings cover, later became Minister of trade in the Cameron Government in Britain, a post he held until 2013.

Apart from the judgments of the Court in United States federal courts, it seems that the Internal Revenue Service of United States also went about his work quietly despite the French tax investigators having identified the 1,400 people with American connections, with approximately $16 billion. Once again, this figure was higher than the amounts indicated by ICIJ.

THE IRS

In a statement to media ICIJ 60 Minutes partner, the IRS said that since U.S. taxpayers have first were encouraged to voluntarily submit details of their offshore farms in 2009, « there were more than 50 000 disclosures and we have collected more than $7 billion of this single initiative ».

The Agency refused to disclose the number, if any, of those who came forward had accounts with HSBC.

What happened after France Greece sent the names of over 2 000 customers Greek HSBC raised an outcry which has now former Minister of Finance of the Greece facing lawsuits.

In 2010, the Greece received names, but nothing happened until October 2012, when a Greek magazine, Hot Doc, published the names and noted the lack of an investigation if rich Greeks were evading taxes while the country was undergoing austerity, including pay cuts and increases in taxes for those who have paid.

Unlike the reluctance with which they had gone after a possible tax evasion, the Greek authorities have been quick to stop Hot Doc Editor Kostas Vaxevanis and accuse him of violating privacy laws.

He was quickly acquitted, and his trial has provoked anger when two former heads of the financial police testified that former Minister of finance Giorgos Papakonstantinou , nor his successor had ordered an investigation into the list. Mr. Papakonstantinou said it was gone.

When the list has finally surfaced, it lacked the names of the three members of the family of Mr. Papakonstantinou. He now faces criminal charges alleging breach of trust, Inkwell, an official document and dereliction of duty over in addition to the removal of the names of the members of his family and his inability to act on the list when he received.

Arms dealers

HSBC kept Aziza Kulsum and his family as customers even after Kulsum was appointed by the United Nations in the financing of the bloody civil war Burundi in the1990s.

The report of the United Nations in 2001 also mentioned that Ms. Kulsum was a key actor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the illicit trade in coltan, a strategically important mineral used in electronics. A large part of the world’s supply of coltan comes from areas of conflict in Central Africa, where armed factions control many mines, extort minors and profit from the sale of Ore illegal

While two of Kulsum accounts were closed before 2001, a third value $3.2 million was frozen (but not closed) for unspecified « reasons of compliance » at an unknown date. Ms. Kulsum husband had a connection not specified to another account which was not closed and held an additional $1.6 million sometime in 2006/2007. HSBC named Kulsum « businesswoman (Pierre and noble metals) » and the owner of a cigarette factory.

Another doubtful account appears under the name of Katex Mine Guinea. According to a 2003 report of the United Nations Organization, Katex Mine was used by the Ministry of Guinea’s defence with the arms of the movement for rebel soldiers in a Liberia society during the fighting in 2003.

Inexperienced of child soldiers fought on both sides. hundreds of people have been killed and over 2 000 injured. The account is shown with $7.14 million within three years after the reports of the United Nations on the Katex Mine has been made public.

Other notes show client meeting, Shailesh Vithlani, to employees of HSBC Dar es Salaam , Tanzania , in 2005, to inform him of how best to invest his money. The Guardian reported in 2007 that Vithlani, that is named as beneficiary of an account owner, was an alleged intermediary who organized the company British arms BAE secretly paid $12 million to an unspecified Bank Switzerland account in Exchange the Government of Tanzania, purchasing an overpriced military radar system. Mr. Vithlani, who could not be reached for comment, told the Guardian in 2007 that he did not pay the money of the Switzerland to officials in Tanzania.

Anti-fraud Office

HSBC another client linked to BAE was Fana Hlongwane , a South African political advisor and businessman. The Serious Fraud Office of the United Kingdom said in instructions subject to South African prosecutors in 2008 that Mr. Hlongwane received money from BAE through a disguised chain of intermediaries to the coast to promote weapons.

Counsel for Mr. Hlongwane has not responded to his repeated applications for comment.

In an affidavit by 2014 is an ongoing investigation on contracts for armaments, Mr. Hlongwane denied « any evidence involving myself or my companies in any corruption or fault. »

Mr. Hlongwane is listed as the beneficiary of an account, Leynier finance SA, which contained $888 000. Two other accounts held $12 million sometime in 2006/2007 do not specify his exact role.

Another account holder seems to be linked to the Asad_p2 scandal.

In 2008, French prosecutors opened an investigation against more than 40 people involved in the sale of corrupt arms Angola in the 1990s. The scandal, which was accused of having participated more than $50 million of bribes exchanged for contracts with a value of almost $800 million, named figures prestigious French, including the son of former President François Mitterrand French.

The account probably linked to the Asad_p2 doubled Corday and opened from 1994 to 1999. The exact role of manual with the account was not specified.

Corday is the name on a series of accounts at HSBC and other banks that have been publicly linked to Yves Manuel who also held an account with HSBC and who died following a conviction for his role in the scandal.

A decision by the French court in October 2011, said Yves Manuel received and hidden $2.59 million he knew came from the company having paid bribes to French and Angolan officials. She did not respond to requests for comment.

Yet another account is located under the name of Wang Chia-Hsing, the son of the intermediary in an infamous Taiwan arms, face, Andrew Wang Chuan-pu.

Wang Chuan-pu is a fugitive wanted in Taiwan on his alleged role in the murder of Taiwanese naval Captain Yin Ching-feng and a series of scandals of Kickback and bribery involving Taiwan, France and China.

The South China Morning Post reported that Wang Chuan-pu leaves Taiwan shortly after the body of Yin – who was about to blow whistle on alleged bribery and corruption in the purchase of six frigates French Navy – was found floating off the coast of the northern coast of the island in December 1993.

HSBC documents show conversations between Wang Chia-Hsing, who is described as an interior decorator and shown with a high address range of London and HSBC staff, even in a period where the account with more than $38 million was under a freeze order.

The files do not clearly what was the exact role of Wang Chia-Hsing in the account. However, saving files that he has requested the Bank to recognize its status as domicile resident in the United Kingdom, a reference to a national life in the United Kingdom abroad who is not paying tax on income or tax on capital gains on earnings abroad. It is generally considered as a form of legal evasion. The bank note Furthermore indicates that a member of staff at HSBC was willing to backdate a form.

A representative of Chia-Hsing Wang says it has « paid all taxes for good reason and has not acted in any way improperly or illegally.  »

Blood diamonds

ICIJ analysis showed that almost 2 000 HSBC customers who appear in files are associated with the diamond industry. Among them is Longboat Emmanuel, who was subsequently found guilty of traffic in blood diamonds.

Blood diamonds, or conflict diamonds, are terms used for the precious stones exploited in war zones that are then sold to finance other war. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone and other nations received the label.

« Diamonds have a long history of being linked to the conflict and violence, » said Michael Gibb of the international Global Witness human rights group. « The ease with which diamonds can be converted into tools of war, when not coming not responsibly, is amazing.  »

The documents show that HSBC was aware that Mr. longboat was investigated by the Belgian authorities at a time where he helped him. « We have opened a company to Dubai-based account. … The client is very careful because it is under pressure from the Belgian tax authorities, who are investigating his activities in the field of tax fraud of diamond. »

Counsel for Mr. longboat told ICIJ, « we point [SIC] not want to give any comment on this matter. My client does not want his name in any article for reasons of confidentiality. »

Other HSBC account holders may be linked to diamonds of Omega, which in 2013, was sentenced to a fine of $195 million for tax evasion in Belgium. The company has agreed to pay the fine but did not admit liability. The Belgian authorities alleged that Omega shifted profits in Dubai by exchanging falsely precious diamonds from mines in the Congo and Angola.

During the period of these alleged transactions, two directors of the company, Ehud Arye Laniado and Sylvain Goldberg , each had the HSBC accounts. A third Director of Omega, The Robert Liling, appears in the files as the owner of several accounts.

Mr. Liling could not be reached for comment. A spokesman for MrLaniado and Mr. Goldberg said that was prosecuted for tax offences. « Omega Diamonds-the Belgian tax administration tax dispute was settled out-of-court civil. »

Links for Al Qaeda?

Links of clients of HSBC and Al Qaeda were raised publicly in July 2012 U.S. Senate report, which cites an alleged list internal Al Qaeda financial benefactors.

The Senate report, said the list emerged after a Bosnian search of the offices of the Benevolence International Foundation , a non-profit, based in Saudi Arabia as the United States Ministry of finance has designated as a terrorist organization.

Osama bin Laden, the mastermind behind the 9/11 attacks, referred to as the handwritten list of 20 names of the « golden chain ».

As soon as the names on the list of the golden chain were made public in the news in the spring of 2003, the Senate Subcommittee said that HSBC should be « on notice » and aware these powerful turnovers were high risk clients.

Although the meaning of the list of the golden chain has since been challenged, the ICIJ found what appears to be three names of gold chain with HSBC accounts Switzerland which existed after that date.

Interpol list

Persons on the list of the Most Wanted of Interpol, the international police agency, such as traders in diamonds Mozes Victor König and Kenneth Lee Akselrod, are among the HSBC account holders – and therefore, Elias Murr , who is president of the Council of Interpol for a more secure world Foundation, an organization to fight against terrorism and organised crime. Murr, who was a prominent businessman before entering politics, was Minister of the Interior of the Lebanon in 2004 during an HSBC account which was property through a company called Callorford Investments Limited. In 2006-2007, the account would contain $42 million.

A spokesman for Murr, richness of his client and his family is widely known, and his family held accounts in Switzerland since before his birth. The account was not linked to its political role. « It is not illegal and it is not suspected that a Lebanese national opens and maintains the accounts anywhere. »
Langue source

L’équipe de journalistes provenant de 45 pays déterre des comptes bancaires secrets entretenus pour les criminels, les trafiquants, les fraudeurs, les politiciens et les célébrités

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